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Attention, Teachers! Why Students Are Bored. Last week I tweeted out a request for teachers to find some students willing to write about needless boredom in schools and received a number of replies. (This is a follow-up to my student survey results.) Sarah, a high school teacher in NJ, collected some great writings. Here are excerpts from two of her 9 th graders. If I ever asked a large amount of students to give one word to describe school, I think that about 90 percent of Affecting Party Essay, them would simply say: boring. Fortunately, in the past I have always had fairly good teachers that kept me interested.
However, I remember one of my seventh grade teachers being possibly the most boring person I had ever met. Every day our class schedule was the and low same: read the chapter - complete worksheets - copy down immense PowerPoints for the rest of class. Everyone I talked to dreaded going to that class where we had to learn to write fast and continue writing even with hand cramps. I never really learned anything in Affecting Every Party Essay, that class, I just memorized information, took a test on it and then forgot everything. High And Low Cultures. Imagine that cycle for an entire year. It was tremendously boring. For other teachers, I recommend not making your students copy 20 slide power points with size 8 font. Slavery: Every Involved Essay. Sincerely, every student. Ways to keep students (or at least me) interested: Change up the outline of the class. Comparative Example. Do fun activities so that students have something to look forward to in class. Speak to the students about the topic.
Try to Slavery: Affecting Involved example stay away from how to a sonata, making the students read about the topic because 99 percent will just skim the material and say that they read it. (I am guilty) Interact with the students one on one. Affecting Party Involved. Try to about Job Experience incorporate students' at Affecting Every Party example, home lives with the class. For example, I love how Mrs. G uses Twitter in class! It's a great way to connect with the students on a more personal level. Only give homework when absolutely necessary. Comparative Essay. I know that I sound like I am only saying this because students (including me) don't feel like doing it, however, there is a real reason. Unless the homework is a fun activity, most students will try to get it done and over with as fast as possible, even if it means doing in incorrectly.
Doing homework incorrectly is worse than not doing the homework at Slavery: Affecting Party Essay example, all because when students put false information on homework, it becomes engraved in Essay, their knowledge. 1. Every Essay Example. PowerPoint. Yes, I agree that PowerPoint is a very valuable tool, but this only applies in certain situations. When a teacher writes paragraphs upon pestel analysis paragraphs on a single PowerPoint slide, and then proceeds to read them all verbatim to teach the class, I completely zone out. To engage their students, a teacher needs to talk to us like we're people. We need examples, and relatable stories that provide the information a permanent residence inside our minds. 2. The Never-Ending Videos. I think that videos are a great tool for teachers to utilize. With sources like YouTube readily available, it is easier than ever to pull up a video on any topic imaginable. However, when a video is Slavery: Affecting Party Involved more than 20 minutes long (when I say video, I mean something informational, not a movie), it gets harder and harder to pay attention, and easier and easier to spiral downward into the abyss of boredom.
Videos, in my opinion, should be used in moderation. Comparative Example. 3. Party Involved Essay. The Lackadaisical Attitude. Personally, I feel that if a teacher seems to have no interest in a subject, neither will I. It is so much harder to pay attention when a teacher seems unenthusiastic, and how to write, I can't even begin to explain how much more interested I am in class when a teacher really cares about what they are teaching. How to Avoid Boring Your Students (For Teachers) 1. Slavery: Every Party Essay Example. Like I said before, use PowerPoints wisely. Use them as a guide instead of a word-for-word of what you're going to say. 2. Use relatable examples. Show funny (not too lengthy) videos that somehow correlate with the subject material, and make the comparative example information more memorable for Affecting Involved example your students. 3. Make class enjoyable. Throw around a ball for students to answer questions, or have a little friendly competition. 4. Even if you're having a bad day, try to be positive. You attitude, whether it is unenthusiastic or constructive, tends to rub off on your students.
5. Engage all your students. Even if only one student is raising their hand, try to call on other people, who may not have their hand up, to answer questions. If they do not get the answer correct, try to guide them towards the correct answer instead of just saying, No, and skipping to another child. How to Avoid Boredom in Class (For Students) 1. Ask questions. Try as hard as possible to think of logical questions that will benefit the entire class.
This will stimulate your mind, and (hopefully) keep you focused on the subject material. 2. Be open-minded, and give each class a chance. Maybe last year your English class was the quintessence of analysis of coca cola, boredom, but that doesn't mean that English this year will be the same. Keep a positive attitude towards all your classes until you have enough time to form a logical opinion of Slavery: Every Party, them. Essay About. 3. Raise your hand!
Even if you are really doubtful of your answer, there is still a chance that you are correct. If you are wrong, a teacher could explain your mistake and make the Slavery: Affecting Every Party example correct answer more memorable. Essay About. 4. If you are not actively writing, try not to Slavery: Affecting Every Party Involved have a pen or a pencil in your hand. This leads to doodling and thus, zoning-out. 5. Keep your head up. Resting you head on the desk will make you focus, but not on class.
Instead, you will be fighting boredom, and lack of sleep. High And Low Cultures. Just a note: This post is not in any way meant to Affecting Every Party example point out all the faults of King, teachers. Teachers are people too, and of course, like any other person, they make mistakes. Affecting Every Essay Example. Words of wisdom from our clients. High. And please, teachers, take special heed on Slavery: Every Involved, the PowerPoints. Comparative. This was the Slavery: Affecting Party Involved #1 disliked practice in our student survey: Too much text on each slide; and reading directly from the slide. It is Essay about Job Experience not easy to admit that our approach might be needlessly boring. (Please don't write me and say that there is always boredom in Slavery: Involved, life; I simply won't post it. We're talking about needlessly boring and improvable teacher practices here.) That's why I encourage you to use the video/audio function on your phone and watch or just hear yourself and ask: if school weren't required, would people happily sign up for and keep coming to such a class? Lectures got so boring at Essay Job Experience, MIT that attendance dropped to Slavery: Every Party Essay 50 percent in many of Essay on Political, them.
Why go, given that the course ID online and the Internet has a million resources? Here is Every Involved example a practical suggestion: either take voice lessons or do a thorough study of effective monologists, comics, storytellers and public speakers; watch good TED Talks; go to Essay Realism Toastmasters; sit in on a teacher who has great classroom presence in your building, etc. The typical teacher use of voice is not very effective: too much of a monotone, poor use of Every Involved Essay, silence for effect; little crescendo and Martin Luther Jr. and X Essays, diminuendo, etc. Slavery: Party Example. -- leaving aside the quality of the lessons and assignments. (How odd that voice lessons aren't a core course in teacher prep.) In short, as I keep saying, there is much in our control that we can do to improve student engagement and achievement. PS: Here -- AE Student Survey 2013-2014 -- is a PDF of our SurveyMonkey student survey, for the many people who requested a look at the questions. Grant Wiggins is the co-author of Understanding by Design and on Political Realism, the author of Educative Assessment and numerous articles on education.
He is the President of Authentic Education in Hopewell NJ.
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Slavery and the origins of the Civil War | International Socialist Review
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3 iii. Comparative Essay. How The Topic Influenced me and why I Find It Significant………………………………………. Every Involved. 3 iv. Weakness …………………………………………………………………….4 Conclusion………………………………………………….4 References………………………………………………. 5 About “The Father of Scientific Management”: Fredrick W. Taylor Frederick Winslow Taylor (was.
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michelle rhee resume (CNN) Michelle Rhee hasn’t run the Washington, D.C., public schools since 2010, but her time in charge, and her every move in Slavery: Affecting Party Involved example education since, still draw cheers from some and ire from others. “Rhee is pestel analysis cola one of worst friends and best enemies of Affecting Involved, public education,” user david esmay commented on an opinion piece by Rhee and former New York schools leader Joel Klein on CNN’s Schools of Thought on Monday. Rhee and Klein wrote about a new report from StudentsFirst, the non-profit Rhee heads, which graded states’ education policies. “She’s only about Job Experience, a standout because she has the political backing to Affecting Every Essay example, make her so. Her policies in Washington area schools are falling apart now that she and her drive to find funding are gone,” William commented. “I don’t see how anyone can take this report or Ms.
Rhee seriously,” commenter Christine wrote about the StudentsFirst report. “The Education of Michelle Rhee,” a documentary airing Tuesday night on PBS, follows Rhee’s time leading Washington, D.C., schools, and examines her legacy there. “Frontline” correspondent John Merrow followed Rhee on her trip to a school warehouses filled with hard-to-get supplies, to the firing of a school principal and to rallies celebrating higher test scores, some of which are now in question. Through it all, Rhee still speaks boldly about education and her ideas. Here are five quotes from the film that offer a taste of how Rhee ran the D.C. schools, and what she’s done since. “I am Michelle Rhee.
I’m the new chancellor of the D.C. And Low Cultures. public schools and no, I have never run a school district before.” This is how Rhee introduced herself to teachers in Slavery: Involved example Washington, D.C., in write 2007. Rhee had spent a few years teaching in Every Party Essay a rough Baltimore neighborhood and and low cultures, a decade in education reform, but was a “virtual unknown,” when Mayor Adrian Fenty picked her to run the D.C. schools. Her style was direct and her objectives clear make Washington’s school’s better, even if it meant changing laws, firing people, closing schools and making adults unhappy. “We’re not running this school district through the democratic process.” Indeed, after some initial excitement, many adults were unhappy.
Scenes show parents angry about school closures, district leaders angry that she defied their instructions, teachers angry about layoffs and firings. Teachers interviewed for the film said Rhee didn’t consider that some kids live in Slavery: Essay extreme poverty or have fallen so far behind that they’d need more than one year to catch up. In the film, Rhee abruptly explained that she listened to what people said, but she’d still do what she thought was right. “How can you possibly have a system where the vast majority of Comparing King, adults are running around thinking ‘I’m doing an excellent job,’ when what we’re producing for Slavery: Every Essay kids is Comparing Martin Luther Jr. and Malcolm 8% success?” Some of Slavery: Affecting Party Involved, Rhee’s major and lasting initiatives tied teacher and principal performance to student achievement on standardized tests. The documentary features video of Rhee meeting one-on-one with principals, asking for guaranteed increases on tests. She’s shown lobbying district leaders to change rules to allow her more control over Essay about, central office staff. She fires one principal on camera and announces big payouts to Affecting Party Involved Essay, educators whose schools post major gains on Martin Jr. and X Essays, standardized tests.
Her evaluation systems have remained in use in Slavery: Affecting Every Party Involved example the district. “In isolated places, could something have happened? Maybe.” Even now, there are questions about the validity of the huge test score gains D.C. schools had during Rhee’s tenure. The documentary pulls together allegations, investigations and evidence that suggest some of the score increases were, as Merrow puts it, “phony.” Investigations didn’t determine whether cheating occurred, but did reveal a high rate of wrong answers erased and Essay Realism, corrected. Every Example. In some cases, investigations weren’t thorough, or were limited to one campus. Comparative Essay. In the Affecting Every Essay documentary, one Noyes Education Campus administrator reports seeing staff members at school after hours, test books open and erasers in Essay Job Experience hand. She said she reported the incident, but it wasn’t investigated. In response, Rhee pointed to schools that continued to Affecting Essay example, show steady, or even huge, gains. But “Frontline” reports that with increased security in place, test scores plummeted at several schools including schools Rhee had rewarded for “unbelievable” improvements.
Rhee stepped down in 2010, after Fenty lost his re-election bid and Rhee lost her most prominent champion. In the “Frontline” documentary, Merrow points out that Fenty lost his job, along with George Parker, the pestel union leader that so often opposed Rhee’s policies. Rhee, he said, came out “smelling like a rose,” running the non-profit lobbying group, StudentsFirst. Her voice remains prominent among education reformers, and she turns up frequently on TV and in magazines. It’s important work, Rhee said, but it’s not all rosy. “Would I rather be in D.C. Slavery: Affecting Every Involved Essay Example. as the chancellor?” she said. Of Coca Cola. “Absolutely.” Not for Slavery: Involved thing but…..I find students complaining about the fact that they can’t understand what their teachers, instructors or professors are saying because many of them have heavy foreign accents and are mainly focusing and teaching things that have to do with their countries or either comparing America with their cultures. I have also found through research that many parents are illiterate and cannot or have minimal knowledge of today’s working knowledge of the high tech expectations in the educational arena. For instance schools are teaching Chinese, calculus,and GRE type multiple choice questions, not to mention computer technology to children in elementary schools. How can parents help their children with homework and studies of this magnitude without being scholars themselves? I just saw an article about her on PBS the Comparing Martin Jr. and Malcolm X Essays other night not sure what thoughts I took away from Slavery: Affecting Every Party Essay her, I thought at Essay about, first she had good ideas about how she ran her school systems, until the odd cheating allegations came forward, and how she fired so many teachers, I get you gotta weed out the weak, but this seemed a bit odd, either way she is one stern dictator, who knows what she wants.
Even if she has to bend traditional morales to Every example, do so. Fact: I taught 6th-8th grade English for 5 years in Seattle. Essay On Political. For all five years, roughly 35 per cent of my students failed and were below grade level. They often came to school without basic supplies such as paper and pencils. Slavery: Party Example. Further, they did not do the comparative example work. Party Example. Many missed roughly two weeks out of the school year due to high, reasons like, “not wanting to get out of bed” etc. I only received calls from angry parents because I “was not doing my job.” Fact: I left the United States two years ago and now teach at an international school in Slavery: Involved Essay Taiwan. I teach 8th grade English and history.
My students receive half their education in English (they’re fluent) and example, half in Mandarin. This is my second year in Taiwan and Slavery: Affecting Party Essay example, thus far I have: 1. Cola. Never had a single student fail my class. 2. Perhaps had two or three students miss more than three days of school in an entire school year (200 days) 3. Maybe been given late work from Slavery: Affecting Every Party Involved about 10 kids. 4. Had parents come all the Comparing Martin Jr. and way to school to thank me for Slavery: Affecting Every Involved example my hard work. 5. Never had one severe behavior problem in Essay about Job Experience my classroom.
Now, I cannot fathom to imagine what many of the Slavery: Affecting Every Involved Essay commentators on this board are thinking (or will spew in analysis cola self righteous indignation). I really don’t even care. For those of you listening, what I want you to take away is this: the U.S. education system is Affecting Party Essay failing because of our culture. There is hope for educators out there; find a country that values education and instills respect and example, responsibility in its youth. You’ll love your job again and remember how wonderful it is to Slavery: Affecting, teach instead of entertain and manage misbehavior. You’ll delight at your students’ inquisitive natures, breadth of knowledge and comparative, skills, and desire to succeed and grow. You’ll marvel at their work ethic and Slavery: Every Essay example, progress. You’ll be flabbergasted by their respect.
And then one day they will forget something or not quite meet your expectations, and how to write, you’ll be reminded that they’re kids and you’ll remind them that they’re just human and Affecting Every Involved example, then they’ll learn for it. And it’s amazing. Do I believe there is hope for Essay Job Experience America’s youth? Well, that would require a huge culture shift in parenting, societal values, and government funding. Suffice it to say, I am not holding my breath from Slavery: Affecting Party Essay Taiwan waiting for those things to happen. You are very correct, the education of high and low cultures, our children should start in the home. America’s children only spend apprx 25-30 hours in a school building /week, this leaves apprx 138hours of home time, it’s the parent’s job to Every Party Involved, get their child ready and prepared for school. On Political. it’s a shame this isn’t happening. Whether you lile Rhees or not, the bottomline is that aamerican high schools and America ate going down the toilet.
China will overtake the USA. Why does the media continue to report on this Paris Hilton of education? Where is the biography/thoughts of people like Superintendent Kuhn in Texas who are doing the real work of improving education? Ignore this woman and do some research instead of “rheesearch.” Her suggestions have been proven not to work for anyone or anything but her and Slavery: Every Involved Essay example, her bank account. I agree with Michelle Rhee that test scores matter. But then I see a person who holds no value for the integrity of and low, numbers, which is a core value in science, engineering, and accounting. The integrity of numbers, is the bedrock value of pay for performance teaching. Since she put improvement numbers on her resume for Slavery: Affecting example her first three years of teaching, she should care very much that those numbers are accurate. Offering an $8,000 bonus based on test scores, and then having the people who get that bonus have custody of the tests, and the answers, was a morally bankrupt system that Michelle Rhee was responsible for. I respect her, but she seemed a little too carefree with numbers and ethics, two things that are just as important in education as spelling words or reading comprehension.
She isn’t even at the district anymore and with the cheating scandal and all I think she’s toast. Rhee and her husband , Sacramento mayor and NBA alum Kevin Johnson, stole Sacramento High School, turning it into a “Charter” school . Phony test score improvements and write a sonata, reports of improved discipline led to Affecting Party Essay, Johnson’s election as mayor ! Rhee’s ambitions may propel the how to write a sonata both of them to much higher office at all of our expense . It’s about someone stood up for our children. Adults will complain, bicker, challenge your decision because they are only Slavery: Every Essay, thinking of themselves. Of Coca. You get it and I send you my blessing to continue to do what you do. I will look out for Affecting Involved Essay example your great work stories and hope you can sweep our country. Please let me know if you need help I would love to Comparing Martin Luther, join your cause. For those who disagree with your methodology let me just say they are complacent because if we leave the school system as it is (which is what your opposers want) then our children will continue to grow up oppressed and Party Involved Essay example, uneducated. Perhaps this part of plan/scheme? hmm….. This is Essay insulting. You imply that Rhee is the first and only person to ever try to “improve” our education system.
Her methods have led to cheating, corruption, and scandal. Real teachers are out there fighting everyday to Affecting Party Involved Essay, improve the system, constantly beset by administrators, politicians, and cola, people such as Michelle Rhee and yourself. Rhee needs to Slavery: Party Involved, teach. There’s nothing more irritating than someone who thinks they know all the Jr. and answers, yet has no experience doing it on a daily basis. Slavery: Every Example. And I mean longer than a year in comparative essay example Boston. She thinks she’s some kind of Affecting Every Party Involved, hero for example firing people! Baltimore. Not Boston. #128578; So if teaching experience will fix the Party Involved problem, why do we even need someone like Rhee?
There are a lot of teachers out there who are plenty “experienced” and our school system is still miserable. Why arent they fixing the problem if they are the only ones you consider appropriate to do it? I think Rhee makes a valid point, if all the teachers are so good at their jobs, why aren’t the kids learning anything? I wish Rhee had come to my town. Of Coca Cola. Currently I’m looking for Every Party Involved new housing because I have a child that will soon be school aged and Martin Luther Jr. and Malcolm X Essays, live in Slavery: Affecting Every Involved example a district where he would attend a school given the lowest ranking possible by my state. This school was slated to be closed due to it’s poor performance, but the community rallied together to “save” it. Now we have a group of parents with a smug sense of satisfaction, proud that they worked hard to ENSURE their kids went to the worst possible school. I’m baffled. Rather than acting like possessive toddlers screaming “BUT ITS MINE, YOU CANT TAKE IT” maybe it’s time to look at things from the long haul perspective. Yes you might like Miss Teacher, you might think she’s a really nice lady and enjoy chatting with her, you may really not want her job to be in Essay on Political Realism jeopardy, but if your children arent learning from her she needs to go. No one benefits from trying to be “nice” in these situations.
You have kids being denied an Affecting Every Party education and a teacher being denied the satisfaction of being good at her job. Sometimes telling people they aren’t doing a good job is the truly compassionate thing to do. The mark of a true educator is having the wisdom and emotional maturity to take that criticism as the gift it is and improve rather than stamping their feet like a petulant child and whining “but its not myyyyyyy faaaauuuuuult” In the four schools I’ve spent a year or more working with, I have never once met a teacher who didn’t appreciate criticism and constantly seek to develop. High Cultures. Yes, there are many teachers who have their old school “this is what works” mentality, but they’re not opposed to trying new things, either. I’ve watched a teacher try her own thing, notice it isn’t working, and try something else. Slavery: Party Involved Example. There are a million factors colliding together to make a child’s education potentially poor, and yes, poor teachers is one of those things, but most poor teachers get run out. A lot of people complain that good teachers become bad teachers because they burn out, and Essay Job Experience, yet they get too much vacation time and retire too early. Honestly? Teachers burn out Affecting Party, faster than a great many occupations — the solution isn’t to high, get rid of those teachers, it’s to figure out why they’re burning out and Slavery: Affecting Every Involved, address that.
I’d rather have one car for 10 years than 5 cars over the same time frame. Rhee seemed honest and sincere. Essay. Going up against a union in a Democratic city she got what she deserved. I’d beg her to come to a city that appreciates her efforts, like mine! Rhee taught a “few years” in a rough Baltimore school….and now she is Affecting Party Essay example telling us all how to improve schools. Another joke making too much money and getting credit for Comparing Martin King Malcolm X Essays knowing so little. Slavery: Essay. Sarah Palin? The point that’s so unfair is that Americans think any sort of improvement can ever be made and they upbraid people who can’t deliver what is impossible to do. American education will never be very good.
Mediocre at best. That’s it. Pestel Analysis Cola. This is as good as it will ever be and all you’re arguing about is Slavery: Affecting Party example how much money to waste and how quickly it gets even worse. Of Coca Cola. After 50 years of these debates nothing’s been fixed, no one was saved, nothing improved. Slavery: Affecting Involved Essay. America’s educational standing has done nothing but dropped.
If anything the solution is to on Political Realism, give up on all of this and stop having mandatory education past the Affecting 8th grade. Comparing Luther King X Essays. Most jobs in the US can now be done with no more than that and Party Involved Essay, frankly, a good slice of jobs can be done with less. So aim low, Americans. You can’t miss.
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Tips for Achieving an #039;Almost Amish#039; Lifestyle. Editor's Note: This post is a follow-up to Party Involved Essay, yesterday's Ten Ways to Live Almost Amish.' Author Nancy Sleeth offers tips for achieving each of her principles for almost Amish living. 1. Homes are simple, uncluttered, and clean; the outside reflects the inside. Almost Amish Decluttering Tips: Start small: Clean one shelf of a closet, once corner of the basement, or one drawer of your desk each Saturday; by the end of the Essay on Political year, your house (and heart) will be much lighter. For each item you bring into the home, give (at least) one away one. Limit temptation by reducing catalogs and junk mail: visit www.dmachoice.org and www.catalogchoice.org to Affecting Every Involved, remove your name from mailing list. Luther King Jr. And Malcolm X Essays? 2. Technology serves as a tool and does not rule as a master. Almost Amish Technology Tips: If there is a form of technology that is ruling you like a master rather than serving you like a tool, consider taking a 48 hour break and note how it changes your relationships Tell your family and Essay friends that you are observing screenless Sundays for a month — no TV, no Internet, no computer games, no email, no texting — and ask them to hold you accountable. Be fully present in Essay Realism real time and space. Turn off cell phones while you are eating meals. Party Essay? Close your laptop when you converse with others.
Don’t keep the TV on when no one is watching. Do one thing at a time. Research at pestel analysis of coca, MIT and Every Involved elsewhere provides clear evidence that we are not as good at multi-tasking as we think. In fact, when we do many things at once, we do nothing well. 3. Saving more and on Political spending less brings financial peace. Almost Amish Money Tips: Before making any major purchase, wait a month to see if you still “need” it. Avoid recreational shopping; never go to the mall without a specific purchase in mind.
Follow the three-present rule for birthdays and Christmas: one for fun, one for Every Involved example learning, and one to bring you closer to God. Discuss with family and children well in advance, and then stick to the plan. At the start of the year, set up a separate giving account. Remember: tithing should only be the beginning of generous giving. 4. Time spent in God’s creation reveals the face of God . King Jr. And Malcolm? Almost Amish Nature Tips. The average school-aged child spends 6 hours and 40 minutes per day in front of a screen, and less than 30 minutes per week outdoors in unstructured play. Take a young friend outdoors and get to know God through his creation. Grow some of your own food, even if it’s just a few tomato plants on Essay, the patio.
Grab two bags — one for trash and one for recyclable items — and clean up one corner of your neighborhood Plant a tree: trees clean the air, reduce storm water run-off, provide shade, and beautify the community. Pack a picnic and comparative essay example turn an everyday meal into a memorable oasis. 5. Small and local leads to saner lives. Almost Amish Small and Local Tips: Visit the farmer’s market and eat local produce in season. Purchase a share in a local CSA (Community Supported Agriculture). Go one step further: arrange for Slavery: Affecting Involved Essay your church to be the weekly drop-off spot for CSA members. Essay Job Experience? Make it your goal to visit one local business each month, and take time to talk with the owner. Get involved with your neighborhood school. Volunteer in the classroom, offer homework help, or tutor a struggling student.
6. Service to others reduces loneliness and isolation. Almost Amish Service Tips. Join a small faith group, not for what you can get, but for what you can give. Slavery: Every Party Essay Example? Adopt an elderly neighbor, single mom, or jobless friend, and and low cultures look for Affecting Involved Essay example ways you can help fill the gaps. Gladly lend tools, sports equipment, and other little-used items. If it comes back in less than ideal shape — or not at all — consider it a donation to a good home. Pestel Of Coca Cola? 7. Every Example? The only true security comes from God. Almost Amish Security Tips.
Encourage routine. Too many decisions (at any age) can undermine security and pestel of coca become overwhelming. As countercultural as it may sound, boring is sometimes better. Stay put. If you have a choice, don’t move. The security that comes from knowing neighbors, geography, and place can be worth far more than a pay raise. Take responsibility. Sometimes when we’re tempted to think of Party Involved example, ourselves as victims, we actually need to blame less — and thank more. Set boundaries.
Margins of safety will increase your family’s confidence and sense of belonging. About Job Experience? Model stability. In marriage, parenting, and friendship, be the person that others can count on. Slavery: Affecting Every Involved? The faster the world changes, the more the world needs you to pestel analysis, be still and know/show that God is God. Affecting Every Essay Example? 8. Knowing neighbors and supporting local businesses build community. Almost Amish Community Building Tips: Play together. If you have young children, find a few neighbors who might want to get together on a regular basis to pestel analysis cola, share child care and Slavery: Every example have some adult time while the kids play. Turn your yard or an open space into a center of fun. Horseshoes, badminton, a tire or rope swing, and pestel of coca cola other old-fashioned games can be a magnet for Every Involved pulling neighborhoods together.
Begin a book group. One great way to expand your mind and get to know your neighbors is through a monthly reading group. If you can’t find one, start one! Invite neighbors for write a meal. Breaking bread together is one of the Affecting Every Involved best ways to break down barriers.
To maximize enjoyment, let go of Essay about Job Experience, any expectations of Slavery: Every Involved example, a return invitation, and don’t be shy about how to write a sonata, allowing others to bring salad or dessert. Walk the Affecting Every Party talk. It could be just two or three friends that meet at a regular time to get some fresh air while catching up on each other’s lives. And Low? I’ve found walks to be one of the Slavery: Party Involved example best ways to have uninterrupted conversations with friends and neighbors. 9. Family ties are lifelong; they change but never cease. Almost Amish Family Tips: Sit down for family meals on a regular basis. Pick one night a week and make it Family Night.
Build in simple traditions — such as pancakes for dinner, family walks around the neighborhood, or special, family-night-only board games. Expect children to be citizens of the family. Giving chores builds unity and a sense of belonging. Keep a weekly day of rest — together! It will change your family dynamics the other six days of the Essay week. Nancy Sleeth is Involved Essay, co-founder of the faith-based environmental nonprofit, Blessed Earth. This article includes adaptations from her latest book, Almost Amish: One Woman’s Quest for a Slower, Simpler, More Sustainable Life . You can find more Almost Amish tips at www.blessedearth.org . Organization illustration, marekuliasz / Shutterstock.com. Tips for Achieving an 'Almost Amish' Lifestyle I will express myself with civility, courtesy, and respect for every member of the Sojourners online community, especially toward those with whom I disagree, even if I feel disrespected by Essay, them. (Romans 12:17-21) I will express my disagreements with other community members' ideas without insulting, mocking, or slandering them personally. (Matthew 5:22) I will not exaggerate others' beliefs nor make unfounded prejudicial assumptions based on Slavery: Affecting Every, labels, categories, or stereotypes.
I will always extend the benefit of the doubt. (Ephesians 4:29) I will hold others accountable by clicking report on comments that violate these principles, based not on what ideas are expressed but on how they're expressed. (2 Thessalonians 3:13-15) I understand that comments reported as abusive are reviewed by about Job Experience, Sojourners staff and are subject to removal. Repeat offenders will be blocked from making further comments. Every Involved Essay Example? (Proverbs 18:7) Christianity in the U.S. Has Been Co-Opted. Join us to offer a prophetic voice in these times. A Sonata? Washington DC 20002.
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From Slavery to Freedom: The African-American Pamphlet Collection
Company Law Essay #8211; Cavendish University Law Lecturers Notes. DEFINITION OF COMPANY: The Companies Act Cap 110 definition section states that “company” means a company formed and registered under the Act or an existing company. The companies Act does not sufficiently define what a company is but authors have developed a definition of a company. Professor David Bakibinga in Slavery: Every Party Involved Essay, his book company law in Uganda at page 2 defines a company as an artificial legal entity separate and distinct from its members or shareholders. High And Low Cultures! This legal person is distinguishable from Every Party example, natural personality. Natural persons are born by natural people/persons and their lives end at death, artificial persons (corporations) are created by law and their existence is how to a sonata ended by the law.
The possession of a legal personality implies that a company is capable of enjoying rights and being subject to duties, separately from its members. As an Party Involved Essay example artificial legal person, a company is capable of the following;- * It has an how to existence separate from that of the members and as such;- * It has its own name by which it is recognised. It can own its own property ie assets like buildings, land, bank accounts. etc * It can sue or be sued in its own name. * Even if a member or all the Every Party Involved, members die, the company will still remain in existence, in other words it has perpetual succession. King X Essays! * It can borrow money in its own name and use its assets as security and it will be responsible for paying back such debts.. * It can employ its own employees, including its members or shareholders. i) This principle of legal personality was first distinctly articulated in the British House of Slavery: Affecting Involved, Lords Judgment in the case of Salomon Vs. Salmon Company Limited (1897) AC 22 At the court of Essay Job Experience, first instance and appeal court, it was held That therefore the company was a legal entity capable of a separate existence and liable to pay its own debts, and Salomon was not personally liable to pay the debts of the Slavery: Every Involved, company. ii) That a company is at law a different person altogether from the subscribers although it may be that after incorporation, the business is essay example exactly the same as was before, the same persons are the Affecting Involved, managers, and the same hands receive the example, profits. The second person needed may not be an independent person. He could be the nominee of the Slavery: Every Involved Essay, first person. Where a private Company does not comply with these requirements, it loses exemptions and privileges conferred on a private company.
This failure can only be remedied upon showing court that it was caused by pestel, accident or inadvertence or some other sufficient cause. Under the Companies Act, Companies in Affecting Every Party, Uganda can also be further divided into: * Limited by shares * Limited by guarantee * Unlimited companies (a) A company limited by shares. This is a company where the members enjoy limited liability. This means that in case of winding up of the company if the company’s assets are unable to meet the company’s debts, then the members will only how to write, be liable to contribute to the debts of the company only such amounts as a member may not have paid for the shares they bought. i,e. , a member will only be required to pay the balance that he did not pay on the shares he bought. Thus a members liability is only limited to the amount of the unpaid shares. a) A Company limited by guarantee This is one where the Party Essay example, liability of its members is limited to such amount as the members may have undertaken to contribute to the company’s assets in the event of its winding up. This guarantee must be expressed in Essay, the memorandum of association. i. e. there must be an express statement/undertaking by Affecting Every, the subscribers / members that the members guarantee that they will pay a specified amount of money if in the event of Comparing Martin Jr. and, winding up of the company, if the company’s assets are not sufficient to Slavery: Every Party Essay, meet its debts. b) An unlimited company This is high and low cultures a company in Party Involved Essay example, which there is no limit on the liability of the members. This means that in the event of winding up, the members are liable to contribute money sufficient to cover all the company’s debts without any limitations, if the company for example has debts of how to write, millions and Slavery: Affecting Every Essay, millions of high cultures, shillings, the members have to be responsible to pay all the debts and the members personal estate/property can be encroached upon to discharge the Every example, liabilities of the company. PUBLIC COMPANIES.
The minimum required number for public companies is essay 7 and it goes up to infinity in other words there is no limit as to the maximum number of Affecting Every Party Essay example, members a public company can have. A public company should be a limited liability company. Its Memorandum of Association must state that it is to be a public company. Its registered name normally ends with the words public limited company (plc). A Company, which has obtained registration as a public company, its original certificate of incorporation or subsequent ertificate of registration issued by the registrar must state that it is a public company. Distinction between Private and Public Companies A public company| A private Company| 1. Minimum of 7 members. For such company to do business there must be a minimum of at least 7 members.
Where the company continues to do business when the number of members has fallen below the legal minimum, then this is on Political a ground for the winding up of the company. Slavery: Affecting Every! (Winding up is the process of Luther King Jr. and Malcolm, putting the company’s existence to an end. ) 2. No maximum limit of Slavery: Involved Essay, members. 3. There must be a minimum of two directors 4. Comparing Luther King Jr. And Malcolm! Cannot commence business until and unless it obtains a certificate of trading/certificate of commencement of business, in Slavery: Party Involved Essay, addition to a certificate of incorporation. 5. Must hold a statutory meeting between l 3 months from the date of about Job Experience, commencement of business. Directors are required under the law to send a statutory report to every member within 14 days to the date of the meeting. Such report must also be sent the Slavery: Affecting Every Essay example, registrar of companies. Write A Sonata! 1. Minimum of two members For such company to do business there must be a minimum of at least 2 members. Where the Slavery: Affecting Every Party Essay, company continues to do business when the number of members has fallen below the legal minimum, then this is a ground for the- winding up of the company. 2. Comparing Jr. And X Essays! The maximum number of members is 50 3. Only one director can suffice 4. Can commence business as soon as it acquires a certificate of Slavery: Party Involved Essay, incorporation.
5. Comparing Luther King Jr. And Malcolm! No statutory meeting is required of Slavery: Affecting Every Party Involved, such companies. | HOLDING AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES. A subsidiary company is one that is controlled by another company called a holding company or its parent (or the parent company). The holding company is therefore one that controls another, and its memorandum must give it powers to do so. The most common way that control of a subsidiary is achieved, is Essay on Political through the ownership of majority shares in the subsidiary by the parent Examples include holding companies such as MTN (Uganda) is Slavery: Affecting Party Involved Essay a subsidiary of MTN (South Africa), Stanbic Bank Uganda is a subsidiary of high and low, Standard Bank (South Africa FORMATION/ REGISTRATION PROCESS. A company is formed by registering it with the Registrar of Slavery: Affecting Every Party, Companies and obtaining a certificate of incorporation. The registration process goes through the following steps;- 1. RESERVATION OF THE COMPANY NAME.
The promoters must choose a name of their choice and then make an application to the registrar of companies to reserve the name for their company. The name should not be identical with that of an existing company or so nearly resemble it as to be calculated to deceive, it should not also Contains the words “chamber of commerce” except where the nature of the company’s business so justifies it and lastly it should not suggests patronage (a connection) from government or be associated with immorality, crime or scandalous in pestel analysis cola, nature. If the registrar is satisfied that the name meets the above requirements, he will approve and reserve the name, the company must then register within 60 days. Reservation means that within those 60 days the registrar will not allow any other person to Slavery: Affecting Every Party, register another company using that same name. To guard against the possibility of a negative reply from the Registrar, promoters must have in mind one or more suitable alternatives. Once a company has secured registration in a particular name it secures a virtual monopoly of corporate activity under that name. In case the Registrar inadvertently approves a name which by law is not adequate, then the new company may change its name within 6 months. A company may change its name by special resolution and cultures, with the written approval of the Registrar. ‘Where the Registrar refuses to register a name without good reason, an application for Slavery: Affecting Party example an order of mandamus to compel the registrar to perform his duty and register the company can be filed in the High Court.
2. Pestel Cola! PRESENTATION OF THE REQUIRED DOCUMENTS BEFORE THE REGISTRAR FOR REGISTRATION. Within 60 days after the reservation of the name, the promoters will then present the following documents to the registrar to have their company registered. * Memorandum of Slavery: Affecting Essay example, Association Articles of Association * A statement of nominal capital * A statutory declaration of pestel cola, compliance. Party Involved! * A statement with the names and particulars of directors and secretary * The prospectus. * The Memorandum of Association of the company. Analysis Of Coca! The memorandum of association is the most important of all the company documents because it contains the powers of the company, it describes the company and the nature of Affecting Essay, activities that the company is Luther authorized to do or engage in. * Articles of Association This document regulates the internal activities of the members and the directors. It contains information on, management, who will be the directors of the company, who will be the managing director, secretary, appointment of the board of directors, qualifications of directors, the chairman of the board, meetings (how meetings of the company should be called and conducted), the Slavery: Party Involved Essay, classes and rights of shareholders, transfer of shares , borrowing powers of the Essay, company, its properties, control of the company finance, dividends/profits and how they should be distributed auditing of books, the company seal and how it should be used etc * Declaration of compliance. This is Affecting Every Involved Essay example a statement declaring that all the Essay, necessary requirements of the Companies Act with regard to the formation of the company have been duly complied with and that the directors agree to continue complying with them. * A statement of Slavery: Affecting Every, nominal capital This is a statement which shows the capital with which the company is starting with. ie the initial capital of the analysis of coca, company. Affecting Every Involved Essay! * List of names and Martin X Essays, particulars of Slavery: Involved Essay, Directors and Company Secretary This document contains the details of the Comparing Luther Malcolm, names, age, addresses, occupations of the directors and company secretary of the company. It should also contain an Slavery: example undertaking by the directors to take and pay for the qualification shares if any that such persons may be required to acquire. * A Prospectus If the company is on Political a public company, it must in addition to Every example, the above documents also issue a prospectus which must also be registered with the companies’ registry. It is a document setting forth the nature and objects of a company and write a sonata, inviting the public to Slavery: Affecting Every Essay example, subscribe for shares in the company. It sets out the number of the founders/management, the share qualification of Comparing Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X Essays, directors, names, description and addresses of directors, the Involved, shares offered to the public for subscription, property acquired by the company, the auditors, etc.
The purpose of the prospectus is to provide the essential information about the position of a company when it is launched so that those interested in investing in it can properly assess the risk of investment. 3. PAYMENT OF STAMP DUTY AND REGISTRATION FEES. The registrar will then assess how much duty is to be paid on registration of that company; it is sassed basing on the capital that the company is starting with, the more the capital the greater the stamp duty. Registration fees are also paid. 4. Cola! ISSUANCE OF A CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION. After all these requirements, a certificate of registration is Every Involved Essay example issued if the Registrar is satisfied.
THE MEMORANDUM ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION OF A COMPANY. Of Coca! The memorandum of Association. The Memorandum of Association of a company, which is Affecting Every Party example required to King Jr. and, be registered for purposes of incorporation, is regarded as the company’s most important document in the sense that it determines the powers of the company. Consequently, a company may only engage in Slavery: Every Involved, activities and exercise powers, which have been conferred upon it expressly by the memorandum or by how to write a sonata, implication there from. Contents of the Slavery: Affecting Involved, Memorandum The Memorandum of Association of a company limited by shares must state the following:- 1.
The name of the company with “Limited” as the last word. 2. The registered office of the company is situated in Uganda. 3. The objects of the company. 4. A statement as to the liability of the members. 5. A statement to the nature of the company (Whether private or public).
6. The amount of share capital and division thereof into shares of a fixed amount. In addition, the memorandum must state the names, address and descriptions of the Martin Luther King Jr. and X Essays, subscribers thereof who must be at least two for Slavery: Party Involved a private company and seven for a public company. 1. The name. The name of the company should be indicated and if it is a limited company, it should have the word limited at the end eg Stanbic Bank Uganda Ltd. 2. Registered office The memorandum must state that the registered office is situated in comparative essay, Uganda. However, the actual address must be communicated to the Registrar of Companies within 14 days of the date of incorporation or from the date it commences business by registration of a company form called Notice of situation of registered office of the company, this form will indicate the Involved, exact location of the company eg plot 8 industrial area Kampala. . The objects clause This sets out the principle activities the company has been incorporated to pursue. Pestel Of Coca! For example; trading in general merchandise, carrying on business of wholesalers and retail traders of all airtime cards, mobile phones and all phone accessories, carrying on the business of mobile money agents etc. The objects must be lawful and should include all the activities which the company is likely to pursue.
The objects or powers of the company as laid down in the memorandum or implied there from determine what the company can do. Affecting Party Essay! Consequently, any activities not expressly or impliedly authorized by the memorandum are “ultra vires” the company. The ultra vires doctrine restricts an incorporated company under the essay example, Companies Act to the purse only the Every Party Involved Essay, objects outlined in its registered Memorandum of Association. The doctrine of pestel of coca, ultra vires is Slavery: Affecting Every Involved Essay illustrated in the case of ASHBURY RAILWAY CARRIAGE CO. LTD VS. RICH (1875). A company which was not authorized by its memorandum of association to lend money or finance any activity made an agreement with the defendant to provide him with finance for the construction of a railway in Beligium, later on the company repudiated this agreement and did not actually provide the finances, the defendant sued the company for breach of contract, the company in its defense argued that financing railway construction was not one of the activities it was authorized to do, it was held that indeed such an act was beyond the powers of the company and and low, such an ultra vires contract was void and un enforceable. To evade this restrictive interpretation of the objects clause, draftsmen inserted words as “and to do all such other acts and things as the company deems incidental or conducive to the attainment of these objects or any of them. In BELL HOUSES LTD -VS-CITY WALL PROPERTIES LTD (1966) 2 QB 656, a company was formed to carry on the business of General Civil Engineering contracts and in particular to build houses.
It had power to carry on Affecting Party Involved Essay any other trade and to do any other things that incidental to the above company’s objects. The Court held that the company could lawfully contract for a fee to procure loans to other concerns, from or business whatsoever which it can in the opinion of the board of directors be advantageously carried out sources of finance which it had resorted to in the Essay about Job Experience, past. It further held that cementing good relations with the Slavery:, financiers would be valuable when the company needed finances for its activities. The Memorandum of Essay on Political Realism, Association spells out the main objectives and powers of the company. However, certain powers may be implied in the Memorandum of Association.
For example, in the case of Slavery: Affecting Every Party Involved, FERGUSON V WILSON (1866) 2CH. A 277, a power to appoint agents and engage employees was implied in the Memorandum of Association. This is only sensible because a company as a fictitious person can only work through agents and employees; and pestel analysis, therefore if such a power was not implied, then the company could not function at all. Similarly in GENERAL AUCTION ESTATES MONETARY CO. V. Affecting Every Party Involved! SMITH (1891) 3CH 432, the court implied powers of borrowing money and giving security for Comparing Martin King Malcolm X Essays loans.
Subsequent cases have also adopted this position. In NEWSTEAD (INSPECTION OF TAXES) V FROST (1978)1 WLR 441 AT PAGE 449, the court implied powers of entering into partnership or joint venture agreements for carrying the on the kind of business it may itself carry on Slavery: Affecting Involved Essay example i. e. intra vires. In PRESUMPTION PRICES PATENT CANDLE CO (1976), the court implied a power of paying gratuities to employees. A power to institute, defend and compromise proceedings will also be implied in the Memorandum of Association” if it is pestel of coca cola not provided expressly”. Courts at times imply powers because the particular nature of the company’s undertaking demands it. In EVANS, (1921) I CII.
359. The court observed that a company formed to manufacture chemicals had powers to make grants to Universities and other scientific institutions to facilitate scientific research and Slavery: Party Essay example, training scientists although it may not obtain any immediate financial benefit from the how to, venture. Therefore before the court implies powers it seems: * There must be some reasonable connection between the company’s objects and Slavery: Affecting Party Involved Essay, the power it seeks to exercise. It is not sufficient for it to Job Experience, merely show that it will benefit in some way by exercising that power. It is important to show that the company will in fact benefit in some way even though remote in the exercise of the power (see Evans, (above). However, though the Affecting Involved Essay example, Court may imply these powers in the Memorandum of Association, its better practice to expressly state them. This is only sensible because:- * The company often needs powers which the courts have not ruled that they can be implied and therefore the company can only obtain them by express provisions in the Memorandum of Association, (e. g. the power to buy a share from another company though recognized under the Act has not yet been implied). To avoid uncertainties or expenses of litigation, it is safer to insert them expressly in the memorandum of association.
4. The liability of members The memorandum of a company limited by shares or by guarantee should indicate that the liability of members is limited. With respect to a company limited shares, the liability of a member is the amount, if any, unpaid on his shares. Essay Job Experience! With regard to Slavery: Party Involved example, the liability of a member of a company limited by guarantee, this is limited to the amount he undertook to contribute to the assets of the company in Luther X Essays, the event of winding up. A company may also be registered with unlimited liability. Involved Example! In such a situation, the members liability is unlimited and in cases the company does not have sufficient credit to how to write, pay its creditors, then the shareholders personal property may be encroached on to pay the company’s debts.. Essay Example! 5. Share capital (clause) The memorandum requires that a company having a share capital must state the amount of share capital with which the company is to be registered and that such capital is divisible into shares of a fixed amount. The essence of the division is to control the powers of the directors to allot shares. Cultures! The law does not prescribe the value but they are usually small amounts to encourage people to hold as many shares as possible. The amount of capital with which a company is to Slavery: Affecting Every Party, be registered and the amount into comparative, which it is to be divided are matters to be decided upon by the promoters and will be determined by the needs of the company and Affecting Every Involved example, finance available.
For example if a company has its initial share capital/ startup capital of 5,000,000 it can divide this into 100 shares of 50,000 each. So of s member subscribes for 50 shares, he will contribute 2,500,000/= . ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION The Articles of Association contains regulations for managing the internal affairs of the company i. e. the Comparing Martin King Malcolm, business of the company. They are applied and Every example, interpreted subject to the memorandum of association in that they cannot confer wider powers on the company than those stipulated in the memorandum. Thus, where there is a conflict or divergence between the memorandum and articles, the Comparing Martin King Jr. and X Essays, provisions of the memorandum must prevail. anagement, who will be the directors of the company, who will be, appointment of the board of directors, qualifications of directors, the, the classes and rights of Affecting Party Essay, shareholders, transfer of shares , , auditing of books, Contents of the Articles * The board of directors (management) and how they will be appointed, their qualifications, how they can resign or be removed from office. * The chairman of the board. * The managing director and how he will be appointed. * Secretary and his appointment. eetings (how meetings of the company should be called and conducted and the required quorum/ number of members that must be present to conduct a valid meeting of the company) and the different types of meeting that the company may hold from time to time voting rights of the King Malcolm X Essays, members, the right to receive notice and to attend and vote etc. * powers of directors * The different classes of shares and the rights attached to different classes of shares. * Borrowing powers of the company. its properties, control of the company finance, its bankers, dividends/profits and how they should be distributed * appointment of Slavery: Affecting Every Involved Essay example, auditors * the high cultures, company seal and how it should be used etc The Articles must be printed in the English language, divided into paragraphs, numbered consecutively, signed by each subscriber to the memorandum in the presence of at least one witness who must attest the signature. The Companies Act contains a standard form of articles (table A) which applies to companies limited by shares. These regulate the Slavery: Involved Essay example, company unless it has its own special articles which totally or partially exclude table A. The advantages of statutory model articles are: * That legal drafting of special articles is reduced to a minimum since even special articles usually incorporate much of the text of the model. * There is flexibility since any company can adopt the model selectively or with modifications and include in its articles special articles adapted to its needs. INTERPRETATION OF ARTICLES AND MEMORANDUM OF ASSOCIATION.
The Memorandum of Association is the basic law or constitution of the company and the articles are subordinate to the Memorandum of pestel, Association. It follows therefore that if there is a conflict, the Memorandum of Association prevails. In other words if there is a contradiction between the provisions of the memorandum and the provisions of the articles of association, then the provisions of the memorandum will be followed and those provisions in Slavery: Involved Essay example, the articles which are contradicting the memorandum will be void and of no effect. If there is no conflict, the Memorandum of Association and articles must be read together and any ambiguity or uncertainty in either can be removed by the other CONSEQUENCES OF INCORPORATION The fundamental attribute of analysis of coca cola, corporate personality from which all other consequences flow is that “the corporation is a legal entity distinct from its members”. Hence it’s capable of enjoying rights and Slavery: Affecting Every Party Essay, being subject to duties which are not the same as those enjoyed or borne by its members. In other words it has a legal personality and it is often described as an artificial person in contrast with a human being-a natural person. SALOMON Vs SALOMON CO) Since the Salomon case, the complete separation of the company and its members has never been doubted. It is from this fundamental attribute of separate personality that most of the particular advantages of incorporation spring and write, these are: 1. LIABILITY: The company being a distinct legal “persona” is liable for its debts and obligations and Affecting Every example, the members or directors cannot be held personally responsible for how to write the company’s debts. It follows that the Party Involved, company’s creditors can only sue the company and not the shareholders.
In in the case of Salomon V Salomon (1897), creditors of the company sought to have Solomon a managing director of the company personally liable for the debts of the company but court held that the company and Solomon were two different persons and that the company as a legal person is liable for its own debts and Solomon a managing director could not be held personally responsible for the debts of the company. In the Ugandan case of Sentamu v UCB (1983) HCB 59, it was held that individual members of the Essay, company are not liable for the company’s debts. The liability of the members or shareholders of the company is limited to the amount remaining unpaid on the shares. For instance, where a shareholder has been allotted 50 shares at Shs. 100,000 each, in total he should pay 5,000,000 for all the Affecting Every Party Essay, fifty shares, if he pays only Shs.
4, 000, 000 to the company, it means that he will still owe the company 1,000,000. This is what is called uncalled capital. The company may call on him to pay it any time. If that does not happen, then at the time of winding up the company, he will be required to pay the Shs. 1, 000, 000. In the case of a company limited by guarantee, each member is liable to contribute a specific amount to the assets of the company and their liability is limited to the amount they have guaranteed to how to a sonata, contribute. If the company has unlimited liability, the members liability to contribute is unlimited and their personal property can be looked at to discharge the Slavery: Party Involved Essay, company creditors but that is only after utilizing the company’s money and Essay on Political Realism, it is not enough to pay all the debts. 2. Slavery: Affecting Involved! PROPERTY: An incorporated company is and low cultures able to own property separately from its members.
Thus, the members cannot claim an interest or interfere with the company property for their personal gain/benefit. Thus, one of the advantages of incorporation (corporate personality) is Every Party example that it enables the property of the write a sonata, company to Slavery: Essay example, be clearly, distinguished from Essay, that of the members. In the case of Every Involved Essay, MACAURA Vs NORTH ASSURANCE CO. (1925) AC (see page 3 for facts). In that case Lord Buckmaster of the House in Lords held that no shareholder has a right to any item of the property of the company, even if he holds all the shares in the company. In the case of Hindu Dispensary Zanzibar v N. A Patwa Sons, a flat was let out to a company and the question was whether the company could be regarded as a tenant, it was held that a company can have possession of business premises by its servants or agents and that in fact that is the only way a company can have possession of its premises. 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS: As a legal person, a company can take action to enforce its legal rights or be sued for breach of its duties in the courts of law. If it the company being sued, then it should be sued in its registered name, if a wrong or incorrect name is used, the a sonata, case will be dismissed from court for example in the case of Denis Njemanze V Shell B. P Port Harcourt, the Affecting Every Essay, plaintiff sued a company called Shell B. P Port Harcourt which was a non existing company, counsel for the defendant company objected that there was no such company and the suit should be dismissed, counsel for the plaintiff sought courts leave to amend and put the right part but court refused to grant the leave and dismissed the case. In the case of Wani V Uganda Timber, 1972 HCB the plaintiff applied for a warrant of arrest against write, a managing director of a company instead of suing the company, chief justice Kiwanoka held that a managing director of a company is not the company and cannot be sued personally, that if there is a case against the company then the company is the right party to Affecting Involved Essay, be sued not its managing director. 5. PERPETUAL SUCCESSION: s. 15 of the companies Act provides that a company is a legal entity with perpetual sucession.
This means that even if a shareholder dies, or all the shareholders die or go bankrupt, in the eyes of the law, the company will remain in existence. If a share holder dies, his /her shares will be transmitted to their executor or a personal representative. Also in case a shareholder no longer wants to be a shareholder in a company, he will simply transfer his shares to someone else and to company will continue to exist. The only Realism, way a company can come to an end is by winding up, striking it off the register of Affecting Party Essay, companies or through amalgamation and reconstruction as provided by the Companies Act. This was illustrated in the case of RE NOEL EDMAN HOLDING PROPERTY all the members were killed in a motor accident but court held that the company would survive. Thus, this perpetual succession gives the certainty required in the commercial world even when ownership of shares changes there is no effect on the performance of the company and no disruption in the company business. Analysis! 5. TRANSFER OF SHARES: A share constitutes an item of property, which is freely transferable, except in the case of private companies. When shares are transferred, the person who transfers ceases to be a shareholder and the person to whom they are transferred becomes the Slavery: Involved Essay example, shareholder. In private companies, there is Essay a restriction on Slavery: Affecting Every Essay example the transfer of shares for example one may not transfer his shares except to an existing member or shareholder, and not to an outsider. Essay On Political Realism! This is essential and is in any event desirable if such a company is to retain its character of an Affecting Every Essay example incorporated private company.
6. BORROWING: A company can borrow money and provide security in comparative example, the form of a floating charge. A floating charge is a security created over the assets of the company. When a company borrows money let’s say from the bank or any other cerditor, it may use its assets e. g. cars, bank accounts and other assets as security, the security/ charge will then float over those assets, in case the company defaults on payment, the Slavery: Involved, charge can settle on about Job Experience one or all of those assets and the bank/creditor of the company can sell those assets to recover their money. It is called a floating charge because it floats like a cloud over the whole assets of the company from time to time, it only settles/crystallizes if the company defaults on payment. So before the charge settles on the assets, the company is free to deal with those assets even to dispose them off in the usual course of business. 6. CAPACITY TO CONTRACT.
On incorporation, a company can enter into any contract with third parties. In the case of Lee V Lee Air Farming Co. Ltd (1961) A. C 12, it was held that a company was it is incorporated it has capacity to employ servants, even the Every Party Involved example, shareholders. THE ULTRA VIRES DOCTRINE. a) Meaning of ultra vires. The object clause of the memorandum of association of a company contains the object for which the company is formed. An act of a company must not be beyond the object clause otherwise it will be ultra vires. The expression ultra vires means beyond powers, therefore an act or transaction that is cola beyond the powers of the company as stated in the objects clause of the memorandum is an ultra vires act or transaction, such an act that is ultra vires is void and cannot be ratified by the company. Sometimes the term ultra vires is also used to describe a situation where the directors of a company have exceeded the powers delegated to them, where a company exceeds the powers conferred upon it by its memorandum of Affecting Party Essay example, association, it is not bound by it because it lacks the Essay on Political Realism, capacity to Slavery: Every Party Essay, incur responsibility for that action, but when the directors of a company exceed the powers delegated to them, the company in a general meeting may choose to ratify their act or omission. b) Distinction from illegality.
An ultra vires act or transaction is pestel analysis cola different from an Slavery: Affecting Every Party Involved Essay illegal act/ transaction, although both are void, they attract different legal consequences and the law treats them differently. An act of a company which is how to write a sonata beyond its object clause is ultra vires and therefore void even if it is legal. Similarly an illegal act done by a company will be void even if it falls squarely within the objects of the company. Affecting! c) Importance of the how to write a sonata, doctrine. The doctrine of ultra vires was developed to Affecting Party, protect the comparative essay example, investors and creditors of the Slavery: Affecting Every Essay, company. This doctrine prevents a company from employing the money of the investors for a purpose other than those stated in the object clause of its memorandum. Thus the investors of the company are assured that their money will not be employed for activities which they did not have in contemplation at the time they invested their money into the company.
This doctrine also protects the creditors of the company by ensuring that the funds of the company to which they must look to for payment are not dissipated in about, unauthorized activities. ) Establishment of the doctrine. The doctrine was established firmly in 1875 by Slavery: Every Involved example, the House of Lords in the case of ASHBURY RAILWAY CARRIAGE CO. LTD VS. RICHE (1875). A company which was not authorized by its memorandum of association to lend money or finance any activity made an agreement with the defendant to provide him with finance for the construction of a railway in Beligium, the directors made this ultra vires contract on behalf the company but subsequently the company ratified this contract in a meeting. ater on the company repudiated this agreement and did not actually provide the finances, the defendant sued the company for and low breach of contract, the Slavery: Affecting Party Involved example, company in its defense argued that financing railway construction was not one of the activities it was authorized to do.
It was held that indeed such an act was beyond the powers of the company and such an ultra vires contract was void and high and low cultures, could not be enforced against the company. Court also held that an Affecting Every example ultra vires contract cannot even be ratified by how to write a sonata, the company and that the subsequent act of the company purporting to ratify this contract in a meeting was void, court emphasized that an ultra vires contract is void and cannot even be ratified by a unanimous decision of all the members of Affecting Every Party Involved Essay, a company. In that case, the HOL expressed the comparative, view that a company incorporated under the Companies Act had power to do only those things which are authorized by its object clause and nything outside that is ultra vires and cannot be ratified by the company. Soon after this case was decided, its shortcomings became immediately clear, it created hardships both for the management and outsiders dealing with the company. The activities of the Slavery: Affecting Every Party Essay example, management of the Luther, company were subjected to strict restrictions, at every step of Slavery: Affecting Essay, transacting the business of the example, company; management was required to ascertain whether the acts which were sought to be done were covered by the object clause of Slavery: Affecting Party, its memorandum of association.
The business men thought this unduly restricted the frequency and ease of business, if the act was not covered by the memorandum, it would mean having to alter the object clause to add that activity and alteration of the memorandum required a lengthy procedure. Later in 1972, in England this doctrine was modified, and subsequently the courts have developed principals to reduce the rigors of the doctrine of ultra vires. They include the following. 1. Powers implied by high and low, statute. According to this principal, a company has powers to do an act or exercise a power which has been conferred on it by the companies Act or any other Act of Slavery: Party Involved Essay example, Parliament even if such act is not covered by the object clause in the memorandum of essay example, association. 2. The principal of Every Party Involved example, implied and incidental powers. This principal was established in the case of ATTORNEY GENERAL V GREAT EASTERN RAILWAY CO (1880) 5 AC 473, in this case the HOL affirmed the principal laid down in the earlier case of ASHBURY RAILWAY CARRIAGE CO. LTD VS. RICHE (1875) but made a slight departure and held that the doctrine of ultra vires ought to be reasonably and not unreasonably understood and applied.
Court therefore held that whatever may be fairly regarded as incidental to or consequential upon the objects of the company should not be seen as ultra vires. That case therefore led to a clear conclusion that that a company incorporated under the companies act has power to carry out the objects set out in Comparing Luther Jr. and X Essays, its memorandum and also everything that is reasonably necessary to enable it carry out those objects. ) Ascertainment of the ultravires doctrine. An act is therefore intra vires (within the powers) the company if; * It is stated in Slavery: Affecting Party, the object clause of the Comparing Luther King, memorandum of Affecting Every Party Involved Essay, association of that company. High And Low Cultures! * It is Slavery: Affecting Party Involved Essay authorized by the Companies Act or by any other Act of parliament. On Political! * If it is incidental to the main objects of the company or reasonably necessary to enable it carry out those objects. Every! In the case of ATTORNEY GENERAL V. MERSEY RAILWAY CO (1907) 1 CH 81, a company was incorporated for carrying on hotel business. It entered into a contract with a third party for the purchasing of furniture, hiring servants and for maintaining omnibus. The purpose or object of the company was only to carry on a hotel business and it was not expressly mentioned in the objects clause in the memorandum of the company that they could purchase furniture or hire servants. High And Low! The contract was challenged on Slavery: Party Essay example the ground that this act of the directors was ultra vires. The issue before court was whether the transaction was ultra vires. Court held that a company incorporated for carrying on a hotel business can purchase furniture or hire servants and maintain an omnibus to Essay Realism, attend at the railway station to take or receive the intending guests to the hotel because these objects are reasonably necessary to effectuate the purpose for which the company has been incorporated, and consequently such acts are within the powers of the company, although these may not be expressly mentioned in the objects clause of the memorandum of association of that company. However not every act that is beneficial to the company is intra vires , it is not enough that the act is beneficial to the company , the act must be reasonably necessary for the company to carry out the activities mentioned in the memorandum. f) Effect of ultra vires transactions. * Ultra vires contracts.
These are void and Every Party example, cannot be enforced by or against the company. In the Case of RE JON BEAUFORE (LONDON) LTD (1953) CH 131, it was held that ultra vires contracts made with the company cannot be enforced against a company. Luther King Jr. And Malcolm! Court also held that the Affecting Every Party Essay example, memorandum of association is constructive notice to the public and therefore if an act is ultra vires, it will be void and will not be binding on the company and the outsider dealing with the company cannot take a plea that he had no knowledge of the contents of the memorandum because he is deemed to know them. In England, the European Communities Act 1972 has lessened the effect of application of the how to a sonata, Ultra vires doctrine in this manner. In England, third parties dealing with the company in good faith are protected and can enforce an ultra vires contract against the company if the third party acted in good faith and Slavery: Affecting Involved Essay, the ultra vires contract has been decided by the directors of the company. However in Uganda, the about Job Experience, ultra vires doctrine has not been modified by statute or case law and there is Affecting Party Essay therefore no legal provision where third parties dealing with the on Political, company in good faith are protected and can enforce an ultra vires contract against the company if the Slavery: Every Essay, third party acted in good faith Thus in Uganda the doctrine of ultra vires is applied strictly with the effect that where the contract entered into by the third party is found to be ultra vires the write a sonata, company, it will be held void and cannot be ratified by the company and the company cannot enforce it against the third party and Slavery: Affecting Party Essay, neither can a third party enforce it against the company. * Ultra vires borrowing. In Uganda a borrowing that is ultra vires is void and cannot be ratified by high cultures, the company and the lender is not entitled to sue the company for the return of the loan.
However, the Slavery: Involved Essay example, courts have developed certain principals in the interests of cola, justice to Every Party Involved example, protect such lenders. Pestel Analysis Of Coca Cola! The reliefs include; * Injunction. If the money lent to Slavery: Party Involved, the company has not been spent, the lender can apply to court for an injunction to prevent the company from spending the money. * Tracing. The lender can recover his money as long as it can still be found in the hands of the company in example, its original form. * Property acquired under ultra vires transactions. Where the funds of the company are applied in purchasing some property, the company’s right over Slavery: Affecting Every Party Essay, that property will be protected even though the expenditure on such purchasing has been ultra vires. * Judgments from ultra vires transactions. Because the law considers ultra vires acts void by their very nature, the company and third parties cannot even with consent attempt to Essay on Political Realism, validate an ultra vires act. In RE JON BEAUFORE (LONDON) supra, builders of a factory for Slavery: example purposes which were apparently ultra vires demanded for their money and by consent it was ordered that the company should pay, on winding up, the Essay on Political Realism, liquidator refused to pay that debt that was arising out of an Every example ultra vires transaction, the court held that the liquidator was well entitled to reject the claim as a company cannot do what is beyond its legal powers by simply going into court and consenting. LIABILITY OF DIRECTORS ON ULTRA VIRES TRANSACTIONS . 1. Liability towards the company. It is the about Job Experience, duty of the directors to ensure that the funds of the company are used only for legitimate purposes of the company. Consequently if the funds of the company are used for a purpose foreign to its memorandum, the directors may be held personally liable to restore to the company the funds used for such purpose. Party! Thus a share holder can sue the directors to restore to the company funds which they employed in transactions which the company is not authorized to pestel analysis cola, engage in.
2. Liability towards third parties. The directors of a company are treated as agents of the company and therefore have a duty not to go beyond the powers that the company gives them. Where the director represents to a third party that the contract entered into by Slavery: Party Involved Essay example, them on behalf of the company is within the powers of the company while in reality the company does not have such powers under its memorandum, the directors may be held personally liable to the third party for the loss on account of breach of warranty of comparative essay, authority. However to make the directors liable, the following conditions must be fulfilled. i) There must be a representation of authority by the directors. It should be a representation of fact not law. ii) By such representation, the directors must have induced the third party to make a contract with the Slavery: Affecting Every Involved Essay, company in respect of a matter beyond the powers of the company. iii) The third party must have acted on such inducement to enter into the contract and must prove that if it had not been for that inducement, he would not have entered into that contract. iv) That as a result, the third party suffered loss. EXCEPTIONS TO THE ULTRA VIRES DOCTRINE. 1. Property acquired /investments made by the company using money from ultra vires transactions. 2. Activities which are not expressed by the memorandum but are implied by law. Pestel Analysis Of Coca Cola! 3. Activities which are not expressed by Slavery: Every Party Involved Essay example, the memorandum but are incidental or related to or reasonably necessary for the company to carry out its express objects.
4. Ultra vires borrowing, where one seeks the equitable relief of injunction or tracing. LIFTING THE VEIL OF INCORPORATION A company once incorporated becomes a legal personality separate and distinct from its members and shareholders and capable of having its own rights, duties and obligation and can sue or be sued in its own name. This is commonly referred to as “the doctrine or principle of corporate personality”. No case illustrated the above principles better than the noted House of Lords decision in Salomon v. Cola! Salomon. However, in some circumstances, the courts have intervened to disregard or ignore the doctrine of corporate personality especially in dealing with group companies and subsidiaries and where the corporate form is being used as a vehicle to perpetrate fraud or as a “mere facade concealing the true facts. ” Upholding the abiove principal in such cases would result into and perpetuate injustice. In this topic, we will examine the concept of lifting the veil and the circumstances where the court may “pierce” or “lift” the veil of incorporation. In Dunlop Nigerian Industries Ltd V Forward Nigerian Enterprises Ltd Farore 1976 N. CL. R 243, the HC of Lagos stated that in particular circumstances, e. where the device of incorporation is used for some illegal or improper purpose, the court may disregard the principle that a company is an independent legal entity and lift the veil of corporate identity so that if it is proved that a person used a company he controls as a cloak for an improper transaction, he may be made personally liable to a third party. The legal technique of lifting the veil is recognized under 2 heads: 1. Slavery: Every Party Involved Essay! Statutory lifting of the veil 2. Case law lifting of the veil Statutory lifting of the veil 1. Where the analysis cola, number of members is below legal minimum. Under S. 33 of the Companies Act if a company carries on business for more than 6 months after its membership has fallen below the statutory minimum, (2 for private companies and 7 for Affecting Every Involved public companies), every member during he time the business is carried on after the 6 months and who knows that the example, company is carrying on business with less than the required minimum membership is individually liable for the company’s debts incurred during that time.
In such a case therefore the Slavery: Every Party Essay example, corporate veil is lifted in of coca, order to hold those members personally liable for the company’s debts incurred during that time. 2. Where the- company is not mentioned in the Bill of Exchange. S. 34 of the Companies Act provides that a bill of exchange shall be deemed to have been signed on behalf of a company if made in the name of the company, by or on behalf of the company or on account of the example, company by any person acting under the company’s authority. S. 09 (4) (b) prohibits any officer of the company from signing or authorizing to be signed a bill of exchange on behalf of the company in which the company’s name is not mentioned in high and low, legible characters/ clear letters. Slavery: Involved Essay! Any officer who does this is personally liable on that bill of high cultures, exchange for the money or goods for that amount unless it is Affecting Party Essay example duly paid by the company. Therefore in such case the corporate veil is lifted in Essay about, order to hold that officer of the company personally liable.
3. Holding and subsidiary companies. Where companies are in a relationship of Slavery: Affecting Every, holding and subsidiary companies, group accounts are usually presented by the holding company in a general meeting. In this regard, the holding and write, subsidiary companies are regarded as one for accounting purposes and the separate nature of the subsidiary company is Affecting Party Involved Essay example ignored. S. 147 of the pestel analysis, Companies Act requires each company to keep proper books of accounts with respect to * Money received by the company and from what source. Slavery: Affecting Every Party Involved Essay Example! * Money spent and what it was spent on. * All sales and purchases of goods made by the company. * The assets and liabilities of the company. These accounts are meant to give a true and fair view of the state of the company’s affairs and to explain its transactions.
Directors of the company are required at least once a year to Essay, lay before the company in a general meeting a profit and loss account (or income expenditure account for non profit making companies) plus a balance sheet. Where at the end of each year a company has subsidiaries, then as that parent company presents its accounts, it should also present a group account dealing with the Every Involved example, affairs of that parent company and its subsidiaries, the group account consists of a consolidated balance sheet and a consolidated profit and loss account of both the subsidiary and the parent company. 4. Reckless and Fraudulent Trading: Under sect 327, it is on Political Realism provided that if in the course of winding up, it appears that any business has been conducted recklessly or fraudulently, those responsible for such business may be held liable without limitation of liability for any of the company’s debts or liabilities. 5. Taxation. Under the Slavery:, income tax Act, the veil of incorporation may be lifted to ascertain where the control and management of the company is high exercised in order to determine whether it is a Ugandan company for income tax purposes. 6. Investigation into related companies Where an inspector has been appointed by the Registrar to investigate the affairs of a company, he may if he thinks it fit also investigate into the affairs of any other related company and also report on the affairs of that other company so long as he feels that the results of his investigation of such related company are relevant to the main investigation.
Lifting the Veil under case law . Where the company acts as agent of the share holders. Where the shareholders of the company use the company as an agent, they will be liable for the debts of the company. Agency is a relationship which exists whenever one person authorizes another to act on his or her behalf. The person acting is Party Essay called the agent, and the one he is acting for is called the principal. Where such a relationship exists, the about Job Experience, acts of the agent are taken to be the acts of the principal. Therefore in an agency relationship, the acts of the agent are taken to be the acts of the principal. In case of liability it is the principal who is Affecting Every Party Essay held liable and not the agent. This is on Political Realism because of the dictum that he who acts through another acts for himself. Thus where share holders employ or use the company as an agent, then those shareholders will be personally liable for the acts of the Involved Essay example, company as principals behind the agent. 2. Where there has been fraud or improper conduct. The veil of write, incorporation may also be lifted where the Slavery: Affecting Every Involved Essay example, corporate personality is used as a mask for fraud or illegality.
In Gilford Motor Co V. Horne  Ch. 935 Home was the former employee of Gilford Motor Co. He agreed not to solicit its customers when he left employment. He then formed a company which solicited the customers. Both the company and how to write a sonata, Home were held liable for Slavery: Affecting Party Essay breach of the covenant not to Luther King Jr. and X Essays, solicit. The company that Home formed was described as a “mere cloak or sham for the purpose of enabling him to commit a breach of the covenant”. In Jones V Lipman 1 W. L. Every Essay Example! R 832 Lipman in order to avoid the completion of example, a sale of his house to Jones formed a company and Slavery: Party Essay example, transferred the house to how to write, the company. Court ordered him and the company to complete payment, even though the ownership of the Slavery: Affecting Party Involved Essay, house was no longer in his names but in that of the formed company. The company was described as a creature of on Political Realism, Lipman, a device and a sham, a mask which he held before his face in Affecting Party example, an attempt to avoid recognition by the eyes of equity. And Low Cultures! In Re Williams Bros Ltd. Party Involved Essay! (1932) 2ch.
1, a company was insolvent but the Directors continued to carry on Comparing Jr. and its business and purchased its goods on credit. It was held that if a company continues to carry out business and to incur debts at a time when there is to the knowledge of the directors no reasonable prospects of the creditors ever receiving payments of these debts, it is in general a proper inference that the company is carrying on Affecting Party business with intent to defraud. R V Graham (1984) QB. 675 makes it clear that a person is comparative essay guilty of fraudulent trading if he has no reason to believe that the company will be able to pay is creditors in full by the dates when the respective debts become due or within a short time thereafter. 3. Public interest/policy. Sometimes, courts have disregarded the separate legal personality of the company and Slavery: Affecting Essay, investigated the personal qualities of its shareholders or the persons in control because there was an overriding public interest to comparative essay, be served by Slavery: Affecting Essay example, doing so. In Daimler Co Ltd Vs Continental Tyre And Rubber Co (1916) A. C 307, a Company incorporated in England whose shares except one were held by German nationals resident in Germany brought an action during the First World War. All its directors were also German nationals resident in Germany, which was an enemy country at the time.
The Court disregarded the high, fact that the Involved Essay example, company had a British nationality by incorporation in England and rather concentrated on the control of the company’s business and where its assets lay, in determining the company’s status. 4. In determining residence of a company for tax purposes. The court may look behind the veil of the company and its place of registration so as to determine its residence. The test for determining residence is normally the place of its central management and control. Usually, this is the Martin Malcolm, place where the board of Affecting Party Involved example, directors operate.
But it can also be the place of business of the M. D where he holds a controlling interest. MANAGEMENT OF A COMPANY The control and management of a company is distributed among its principal officers and these include the auditors, accountants, Board of Directors, Managing director (if any) and any other officers of a company. Martin Luther King Jr. And X Essays! There are basically two organs responsible for Slavery: Affecting Every the management of a company. These are: – 1. The Shareholders through company meetings and 2. The Board of on Political Realism, Directors. The shareholders and Company Meetings The shareholders have an opportunity of influencing the company’s management through the company’s meetings. Party! There are 4 types of meetings through which the shareholders can participate in the affairs of a company. 1. Statutory Meetings: These are provided for under S130 of the Companies Act which requires every public ltd company to hold such type of meeting within 30 days from the date of commencement of business. The meeting is held once in the company’s life and never again. The meeting is a must hold for all public companies, private companies are not required to on Political, hold this meeting. 2.
Annual General Meeting (S. 131). Unlike the Slavery: Every Essay example, Statutory Meeting, an AGM is required of Essay on Political, all types of Slavery: Every Party Involved, companies. It must be convened by notice of not less than 21 days. This is the most important meeting of the company and concerns a number of issues. Comparing Martin! Although the Affecting Every Party Essay example, companies Act does not exactly indicate the and low cultures, nature of the business transacted at Slavery: example such a meeting, the business invariably includes appointment of auditors, fixing their remuneration, declaration of dividends, consideration of the company’s profit and loss accounts and the balance sheet, consideration of the reports of the write a sonata, directors, auditors and election of new directors or auditors if need arises. The purpose of the annual general meeting is important for the protection of the Affecting Every Involved Essay example, members because it is the one occasion when they can be sure of having an opportunity of meeting the directors and analysis of coca, questioning them on the profit and loss accounts, on Affecting Every Involved their report and on the company’s position and prospects. It is at this meeting that normally a proposition of the directors will retire, come up for re-election:- and it is at this meeting that the members can exercise their only real power over high cultures, the board i. e. the Every Involved example, power of dismissal by voting them out. Most of these things could of course be done at the extraordinary meeting but the members who want to raise these matters may not be able to insist upon King Malcolm the convening of Every Party Involved Essay example, such meeting, the annual general meeting is valuable to them because the directors must hold it whether they like it or not.
If the company fails to convene such a meeting, there are two consequences that occur:- i. The registrar may himself convene that meeting or order that the meeting be convened and in extreme cases he may further order that any one shareholder present in person or by proxy be deemed to constitute the meeting. ii. Analysis Of Coca! Every director who is in default of convening that meeting as well as the company itself are liable to a default fine not exceeding shs 200/= and Slavery: Every Party Essay, every officer of the company who is in default is liable to and low, a default fine of shs. 40/= (1981) HCB 60). Within 18 months after incorporation, the company must hold an Affecting Every Essay annual general meeting and then every 12 months thereafter. 3. And Low! Extra-Ordinary General Meeting (S 132): This is usually convened by the directors at their discretion ( art 49 table A) to deal with urgent matters which cannot wait till the next annual general meeting. However the Every Party example, directors must hold such meeting irrespective of any contrary provision in the articles if holders of at least 10% of the company’s paid up capital or 10% of the members carrying voting rights ask/ requisition for it. They must state the reason why they want such a meeting. Example! If the directors do not convene the meeting within 21 days of the requisition, then the requisitionists may themselves convene the meeting and recover expenses from the company which may in turn recover the same from the defaulting directors. 4. General meeting convened under court orders (S. 135).
It provides that if for any reason it is impracticable to call a meeting of the Every Party example, company in any manner in which meetings of the company may be called, the court may on application of any director or member of the company who would be entitled to attend and Essay on Political, vote at Slavery: Involved Essay the meeting order a meeting of the company to be called, held and conducted in any manner that the court thinks fit, and court may for that matter direct that only one person present at the meeting shall constitute quorum. PROCEDURE, ATTENDANCE AND QUORUM (17. Write A Sonata! 3. 05) 1. NOTICE OF MEETINGS. Slavery: Affecting Party Involved Essay Example! s. Analysis Of Coca Cola! 133 provides that any meeting of a company must be called by a notice of Affecting Essay example, a period not shorter than 21 days and any provision in that articles providing for a shorter notice is void and a sonata, of no effect. The notice may be in writing or it can take any other form like word of mouth, radio or TV announcements, newspapers etc. it must state the exact date time and place where the meeting will take place and what is intended to Slavery: Affecting Party, be discussed at that meeting, if the notice does not indicate the above then it is not a proper notice and if any shareholder is absent from the meeting because his notice had not fully disclosed the agenda, he can seek a court order to declare such a meeting null and void.. However a meeting may be called by a shorter notice than 21 days if all the members entitled to attend and vote at the meeting agree to such a shorter notice. 2. QUORUM. This relates to the minimum number of on Political Realism, members that must be present at a meeting of the Affecting Party Essay, company for it to be a valid meeting.
The company’s articles will normally provide for the required quorum but where they are silent on this, s. 134 (c) of the Act provides for the requisite quorum as 2 members present in case of a private company and in any other case three members personally present. Quorum need not be maintained throughout the meeting though at and low the beginning it must be there. 3. PROXY A proxy in Company law is Affecting Every Involved a document which authorises somebody to attend a meeting on high cultures behalf of a shareholder. S. 136 provides that any member of a company entitled to attend and vote at a meeting of the company is entitled to Involved Essay example, appoint another person to attend and vote instead of write, him of Slavery: Affecting Party Involved Essay, her and any notice calling for a meeting should indicate that that person is a sonata entitled to attend by proxy. Slavery: Affecting Party Involved! 4. VOTING. S. 134 provides that every member shall have one vote in respect of each share he has and in case of a company having a share capital and in other cases every member shall have 1 vote. Under S 137, it is stated that either five members entitled to vote or shareholders with at least 10% of the voting rights can demand a vote by poll. OFFICERS AND MEMBERS OF THE COMPANY 1. Board of Directors There is high and low no definition of a director whether in the Act or by case law. Nevertheless, S2 of the Slavery: Involved Essay, Act states that a director includes any person occupying the position of a director by whatever name called. In most private companies directors are usually share holders and in public companies , there is a requirement that directors must take up qualification shares, which is not the case in how to write, private companies unless the articles provide for it. According to S 177, a public company must have at least 2 directors.
It’s an offence to have one director. Where a private company has one director, he cannot simultaneously act as the secretary of the company but if they are two directors then one of them can also be the secretary. Slavery: Every Involved! Under the act, a director is defined as “any person occupying the position of a director by whatever name called” this definition includes a “de jure director. Haven’t found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected] Hi there, would you like to get such a paper?
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Learn more about how to measure social media ROI for your business. The most important thing to understand about your social media marketing plan is that it should be constantly changing. As new networks emerge, you may want to add them to your plan. As you attain goals, you will need to set new targets. Unexpected challenges will arise that you need to address. As you scale your business, you might need to add new roles or grow your social presence for different branches or regions. Rewrite your social media strategy to Slavery: Every Party reflect your latest insights, and make sure your team is aware of what has been updated. Bonus: Download our free guide that shows you how to 10X your social media performance and beat your competitors. No fluff or tired tactics—features the Comparing Martin Luther King Jr. and tools, daily routines, and advanced techniques used by three world-class industry experts.
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