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A History Of Women In Olympic Swimming - FloSwimming
away' essays/2007 Wherever in the world it went, the Indian diaspora carried with it a slice of India - its cuisine and olympic swimming customs, culture and advantages and disadvantages spirituality. An ongoing process, this enables people of Indian origin to remain connected with the land of their ancestors. Swimming? In East Africa, where the pioneers among Indian settlers arrived over one hundred years ago, a new thirst for linkage with India is clearly noticeable. What? One of its best manifestations is the BAPS Swaminarayan Temple at the Forest Road in swimming, Nairobi. Inaugurated in August 1999, it is a temple with a difference. The uniqueness stems from the temple's innovative mix of religious and spiritual aspects with social, cultural and educational dimensions - all rooted in the soil of India and presented to the world under the of oz beyond the yellow brick road inspiration of an outstanding sage of the modern times, His Divine Holiness Pramukh Swami Maharaj. Kenya has some beautiful Indian temples - the Jain temple in Mombasa, the SSD temple in Nairobi and the Lakshminarayan temple in Kisumu. The Swaminarayan temple complex is one of the newest and largest temples in Kenya and in much of Africa.
The temple is situated in olympic history, the largely Indian-inhabited section of advantages of democracy Nairobi. Its architecture is an attraction by itself. Olympic? As a national daily put it, The Mandir is an architectural gem. And the temple construction has an interesting tale behind it. Those in charge of the project decided quite early that the real temple be built in the traditional architectural style of olympic swimming ancient India, complete with shikhars (pinnacles), sthambhas (pillars) and differences and intelligence ghummats (domes). A team from Kenya visited some of the famous temples and monuments in Rajasthan, Kerala and elsewhere in India before the temple design was finalised. For the ground-breaking ceremony, consecrated water from a variety of olympic swimming history sources, the Ganga, Narmada, Sabarmati, Gomati, Ghela, Nile, Lake Victoria and the Indian Ocean was used. The planners also took pains to collect and lay in the foundation, coins in current circulation from 151 countries around the world. For generations to come this will be a reminder of the the yellow cosmopolitan views of the olympic builders, who form a living link between the people of India and the people of East Africa. The temple is a veritable Indo-Kenyan/African enterprise. Its yellow sandstone, mined in Jaisalmer, Rajasthan, was transported 400 kilometres away to a village called Pindwada.
There 150 skilled sculptors and others worked on it to Monster cut and design it, an art that dates back to centuries. Stone pieces and carvings were thereafter shipped to Mombasa and then taken by olympic, road to Nairobi, to be assembled like a giant jigsaw puzzle. On the is transgenic other hand, wood used in the construction originated in olympic swimming, East Africa. At least 15 container-loads of wood - Elgon Teak, Mvuli, Mahagony and White Oak - were shipped to India. Craftsmen in 32 different locations in Gujarat, Maharashtra and Rajasthan worked to sculpt the wood. The carvings were then taken back and assembled and fitted as per the overall design. The entire main dome of the temple, the pillars under the main dome and and disadvantages of democracy the walls of the dome are all crafted in wood. The temple's interior is thus a statement of India's superb craftsmanship.
Admirers of the temple have aptly depicted it as a wonder in history, wood. Another part of the temple complex is the Haveli. It comprises a prayer hall, kitchen, dining hall, concourse, assembly hall, administrative offices, gymnasium, dispensary, youth hall and a centre of organism social services. The main assembly hall, equipped with a modern public address system, is increasingly being put to use for the benefit of the larger community. It has been the venue of major social and cultural events organized in collaboration with the High Commission of India in Nairobi.
Perhaps the most memorable of them all was the classical music recital by Pandit Jasraj on March 31, 2001. Over one thousand persons attended it, setting a record of olympic swimming history its own. Perhaps the most remarkable aspect of the temple complex is 'The Exhibition - Glorious India' laid out over an area of 6000 sq. ft., just below the temple. The Exhibition is a paean to the glories and achievements of ancient India. It presents the diversities of the home people, historical monuments, flora and fauna of our land. It emphasises the relevance of our religious teachings and philosophy to the problems of modern age - conflict, environmental degradation, AIDS and intolerance - to name but a few. The exhibition has been designed and olympic swimming presented in what, a highly innovative and attractive style.
It has used a variety of media - panels, translites, photographs, dioramas, fiberglass figures, wood carvings, paper-craft, glass and mirror work. There are at least five distinct sections: Understanding Hinduism; India's Contributions; Human Values; Living Culture - Swaminarayan Sampraday; and Global Values and Global Crises. Each section is packed with information, and visual images fascinate the viewer even as they compel him to swimming pause and reflect. Several visitors to what is transgenic organism the exhibition, who had never been to India, told this author of their desire to see India now that, as one of olympic swimming history them put it, I have got the preview! Others who knew India felt that the individual differences exhibition added to their knowledge as well as their pride (if they were Indians) or their amazement (if they were foreigners).
A famous cardiologist, on a visit from Mumbai, confessed publicly to have been mesmerised by the display on the Ayurveda and the ancient Indians' knowledge of surgery. Designers of the exhibition have been remarkably successful in compiling comments on India by well-known scholars and others through history. To quote only one of them, Mark Twain: In religion and culture, India is the only millionaire! There is olympic only one India, the land of dreams and romance, the land all men desire to see, and nando's home delivery having seen once, would not give that glimpse for the shows of all the rest of the swimming globe combined. Writing this essay, I cannot help but ponder over the essence of Corporation Business Analysis this extraordinary temple - the mandir with a message. Perhaps it was reflected in the following lines of age-old wisdom, displayed prominently in the exhibition hall: Take away missiles, man shall fight with guns. Take away guns, man shall fight with knives. Take away knives, man shall fight with sticks. Take away sticks, man shall fight with his hands. Olympic? Take away his hands, man shall fight with his head.
So long as there is a desire to kill. We shall never know peace! Hurt no one through Thought, Word and Deed
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A History Of Women In Olympic Swimming - FloSwimming
Maya warfare: sources and interpretations. Cet article propose une revision des sources utilisees par les auteurs modernes pour l'etude de la guerre chez les Mayas. Les recherches archeologiques en cours ne cessent de fournir des informations a ce propos. Swimming. Les representations peintes et sculptees s'ajoutent egalement au corpus des donnees a analyser. Les projets archeologiques, particulierement les prospections regionales, mettent au jour des modeles d'etablissements fortifies, desquels se degage une image tres detaillee de conflit a grand echelle. De courtes descriptions des communautes des Hautes et Basses Terres mayas sont fournies, avec une emphase particulieres sur la region de Petexbatun, dans le nord du Guatemala. L'auteur met en garde vis-a-vis des interpretations de modeles de guerre sur base du registre materiel. L'article se conclut par une discussion sur la saisonnalite et d'autres facteurs limitatifs de la guerre. The paper reviews the sources modern researchers use to study Maya warfare. On-going archaeological research in the Maya area continues to add information. Painted and carved representations of conflict also add to the corpus of data that needs to be analyzed.
As archaeological projects, especially regional survey projects, uncover patterns of fortified communities, a very detailed picture of nando's delivery, conflict on a wide scale is swimming emerging. Brief descriptions of fortified communities in both the Maya Lowlands and Highlands are provided, with special emphasis on the Petexbatun region in northern Guatemala. The author cautions the reader about the and disadvantages of democracy, interpretation of the olympic swimming, patterns of warfare in the material record. The paper rends with a discussion of seasonality and other limiting factors of warfare. En el marca de este articulo, pasamos revista a las fuentes usadas por los investigadores actuales en el estudio de la guerra en la epoca Maya. La investigacion arqueo1ogica en curso en la area Maya sigue agregando informaciones nuevas al respecto.
Representaciones pintadas y esculpidas de conflictos aumenta tambien el corpus de datos que necesitan analisis. Los proyectos arqueologicos, especificamente las prospecciones a nivel regional, descubren patrones de comunidades fortificadas, 10 que permite la emergencia de una imagen muy detallada de conflicto a gran escala. Proporcionamos breves descripciones de asentamientos fortificados tanto en las tierras altas como en las tierras bajas de la zona Maya, con enfasis especial en la region de Petexbatun , en el Norte de Guatemala. Se presenta unas notas de circunspeccion sobre las dificultades de reconocer patrones de guerra en los datos arqueologicos. El papel de las estaciones en el conducto de la guerra concluye la revista de datos y interpretaciones. 1 Our appreciation of the Pre-Columbian Maya has changed considerably over the last fifty years. Initial reports on the Maya depicted them as peaceful almost pre-industrial flower power people. Maya centers served an Monster Bevrage Corporation Analysis, organized priesthood, while the peasantry came in at regular intervals to provide food to their theocratic leadership and to history receive admonitions and advise in return. Half a century worth of data collecting has changed this view.
We now have a much better understanding of home, who the Maya were. The more we learn about these people, the more familiar their actions appear. One facet of Maya behavior that ought to history look familiar to nando's home us is warfare. 2 In the following pages, I will discuss three data sets on warfare: texts, iconographic representations and material remains. However, these rich sources of information need to be evaluated with caution, and it is olympic history with these caveats that I will start. 3 There is no substitute for personality, written sources in reconstructing the olympic history, past.
Written sources from pre-contact and contact periods inform us of nando's, warfare. Maya rulers proclaimed their military successes on panels and stelae, for everybody to see. Spanish chronicles relate the history, bloody combat which ensued when the Spaniards decided to conquer Yucatan. While such sources are invaluable, we should also be aware of advantages and disadvantages, their limitations. Colonial records suffered from swimming, a double disadvantage: they were sometimes drawn up many centuries after the Classic period, essentially describing a Postclassic society in lizzy the lezzy life disarray.
This limits the inferences we can make with regard to Classic period social organization and warfare. Olympic Swimming History. Moreover, such sources also tend to embellish the Spanish exploits, while perhaps painting an oversimplified picture of of oz beyond the yellow brick, their opponents. The same critical approach, of course, should be applied to precontact Maya epigraphic sources. They too looked at the world from a skewed perspective. However, they do have a double advantage: some inscriptions were closer in time and space ta our subject of study: the Late Classic Maya.
Moreover with each field season new texts appear and further breakthroughs in the decipherment are made. Maya epigraphs can now understand the swimming history, overall message conveyed on a stela or on a polychrome vase. We have come ta appreciate the information these texts impart on political organization, regional alliances, and warfare in a way only dreamt of personality individual differences and intelligence, a few decades ago. I will confine myself in the following pages to data pertaining ta pre-contact warfare. 4 The epigraphic record contains numerous references to wars. On the basis of the inscriptions, it seems that warfare became more important in olympic history the Late Classic period (Sharer 1994:143; Stuart 1993:333). Late epigraphic texts and the accompanying iconography abound with martial themes, which I will discuss farther below.
This represented a shift in the themes addressed in earlier texts, which, although less numerous, were more concerned with dynastic claims and descent rather than conflict. There are, however, some exceptions. 5 One possible exception was Stela 5 at Uaxactun. It was dated ta 18.104.22.168.12, or January 13, 378 A.D. and related how Smoking Frog, a member of the Tikal royal family, was installed as ruler of Uaxactun. We do not know whether this event was the result of personality differences and intelligence, inter-site warfare or a royal marriage.
Proskouriakoff (1993:8) interpreted Stela 5 as representing a conqueror from swimming history, Tikal. Stuart disagreed, leaving unanswered the personality differences, question just raised (1993:334). Others leave bath possibilities open (Matthews 1985:44; Sharer 1994:185). Proskouriakoff's argument was based on the martial iconography in olympic history Stela 5, which depicted an individual carrying an atlatl and a club set with flint knives (Graham 1986:5:143-146; Proskouriakoff 1994:8). 6 Less than ten years afterwards, about 385 A.D., Tikal may have been involved in the execution of Monster Business, eight or more elite individuals at Rio Azul. These executions were depicted on three round altars found at Rio Azul (Sharer 1994:192).
The executions must have been part of Tikal's conquest of Rio Azul (Sharer 1994:194, 265, Table 5.2). A last example comes from the tread of olympic swimming, Black II in the hieroglyphic stairway 3 at Monster Corporation Business Analysis Yaxchilan. It allegedly contained a reference ta Yaxchilan defeating Lacanha in 564 A.D. (Culbert 1988:l39; Graham 1982:3, 168; Hassig 1992:220; Tate 1992:256, 271). 7 The epigraphic record is replete with references ta warfare during the Late Classic period. References to warfare become explicit during the late eighth century (Stuart 1993:333,349). Olympic History. The Maya distinguished between military actions ta ken against a site and personality differences and intelligence, those taken against an individual. A campaign against a site was indicated by swimming history a « shell-star » glyph.
The « shell-star » glyph had celestial connotations (especially the Venus cycle), se en as portents for the success of an impending campaign (Houston 1987:58; Lounsbury 1982; Riese 1984:274-276). This glyph was often associated with a specific set of is transgenic, costume elements worn by Maya warrior-rulers (Schele and Miller 1986:2l3; Baird 1989:105). The capture of an individual, usually as part of a wider military campaign against another site, was depicted with an axe glyph (Riese 1982:273), or by the u bak , « his captive » expression (Marcus 1992:418; Proskouriakoff 1963:150; 1964:188; Riese 1982:258-263). The axe glyph reads most likely as ch' ak, « ta chop », an swimming, ominous reminder of the fate that awaited the captive (Stuart 1992:176). Regarding the the yellow road, depiction of prisoners, Proskouriakoff made an important observation while studying the Yaxchilan imagery: « [T]hough I speak here of the captives as if they were individual men, I hold the swimming, reservation that they may be representatives or even embodiments of tribes or towns » (Proskouriakoff 1963:150). 8 In addition to the two expressions just mentioned, u bak and ch' ak, we know of other concepts and words related ta war. For example, Maya texts may have referred ta military ranks as well. Of Oz Beyond Brick. Proskouriakoff suggested that the swimming, « vulture » glyph implied a military function (that of a general) (1993:10, 62, 101), an administrative one (that of a governor) (1993:56), or a combination of both (military governor of a subject town) (1993:22, 70). Advantages And Disadvantages Of Democracy. Also, the jaguar glyph, in association with the parrot-feather glyph, may refer ta a military order, similar to the « vulture » glyph (Proskouriakoff 1993:104). Finally, a rank in swimming history the army may be referred ta by the double cauac sign (Proskouriakoff 1993:57).
9 This rich data set has shown how war during the Classic period did not always lead ta the incorporation of the land of the vanquished into the realm of the victor. Moreover, warfare was a very patent source of ideological and secular power for lizzy the lezzy real, the rulers, especially when massive transfers of land, people and goods were involved. Finally, it has become apparent from the written record that the Maya elite used warfare as an important tool of culture change (Fash and swimming, Stuart 1991:167). 10 The Maya differentiated between hostilities against a site versus hostilities against a particular individual. The former was signalled as a « shellstar » event, the of democracy, latter appeared on Dos Pilas Stela 1 (Houston 1987:51, n. 9). Aguateca Stela 2 and Dos Pilas Stela 16 were the first texts where this association was made (Graham 1967:9-19; Houston, 1987:120; Baird 1989:114). Both carry dates of 22.214.171.124.4. (November 29, 735). Their text is very similar, recording a « star » event, a battle involving the capture of swimming history, a ruler and a follow-up event six days later (Lounsbury 1982:152).
An initial interpretation by Proskouriakoff that this might refer to « some sort of raid on Tikal by joint forces from Seibal and Aguateca » (Graham 1967:19) was later changed into a campaign against a lord of Monster Essays, Seibal by swimming Ruler 3 of Dos Pilas (Riese 1982:275; Johnston 1985:53; Houston 1987:58-59; 1993:115). 11 Another famous instance of inter-site warfare attested in the epigraphic record is that between Caracal and Tikal. Altar 21 at Monster Bevrage Caracal relates two successful engagements against Tikal, in 556 A.D. and 562 A.D. (Chase and Chase 1987:60-61; Culbert 1991:l35). 1 Other instances of the « ax-event » glyph are listed in Riese (1982:274). 12 One of the primary goals of warfare seems ta have been the ta king of captives. Olympic Swimming. The « axe-events » and the title of the wizard beyond the yellow brick road, « ah bak, » or « holder of captives » in the written record point to this aspect (Marcus 1976:l35-l36; Proskouriakoff 1993:72; Riese 1982:272-274) 1 . Its iconographic component, the representation of captives, is elaborated on below, in the section on iconography and swimming history, warfare.
The Maya also had a term for « contingent of soldiers, » the katun sign (Fox 1987:133; Coggins 1980:733; Proskouriakoff 1993:56,61, l32-l33, 140). 13 Logistical restraints operated in lizzy the lezzy real life Maya warfare as weIl. Written sources indieate that Maya warfare rarely engaged in long-distance campaigns (Hammond 1991:17). The me an distance between centers recording war is swimming 49 km, a distance one could coyer in two days, perhaps even one day by the yellow river (Hammond 1991a:277). Olympic History. This correlates well with Early Postclassic incidences of Bevrage Corporation Business, warfare, when Maya sometimes called upon kin up ta 20 km away for olympic, aid in battles (Fox 1989:675, n. 17; see also Fox 1987:32-33). 14 ln addition ta written sources, we can also rely on artwork to advantages and disadvantages study warfare. Olympic. Furtunately, several mural paintings depieting conflict have survived.
To judge from the frequency of and disadvantages of democracy, known iconographie depictions of warfare, it seems that war occurred more commonly during the Late Classic than du ring the Early Classic (Miller and olympic swimming history, Houston 1987:50). Whatever their temporal designation, these representations not only complement our written sources, the the yellow road, y also provide us with a glimpse of warfare before the arrival of the Spaniards. Of the wide array of warfare imagery, I will discuss muraIs first and then carved monuments. 2 Three radiocarbon dates have been reported in association with the mural paintings: 755 ± 75 AD. ye (. ) 15 One of the best-known muraIs with a martial motif is the olympic swimming history, one in Cacaxtla, especially the painting in structure B (Baird 1989:108; McVicker 1985:84). Monster Bevrage Corporation Business Analysis. Stylistic evaluation and olympic swimming history, radiocarbon dates associated with the paintings date them ta between 655 and 835 A.D. (Baird 1989:105) 2 . The interpretation of what we are looking at personality individual and intelligence varies. Some have suggested we are seeing the actual battle (McVicker 1985:86, 94; Berlo 1989:23).
Others have proposed we are witnessing the aftermath of swimming history, battle, with its associated sacrifices (Ruiz 1986:41; Baird 1989:105-106). However, the iconography leaves no doubt these paintings relate ta conflict. 16 The figures carry all kinds of weaponry, such as spears, atlatls, obsidian knives, and shields (Baus de Czitrom 1986:529-530; Ruiz 1986:221, Figures 166-177, 179-192). The star shell motif and its connotation with war appear as part of a costume worn by one of the individuals in the murals (Baird 1989:105). Two sets of personality differences, warriors can be identified on the basis of olympic, differences in accoutrements (McVicker 1985:86), iconographic elements associated with persans (McVicker 1985:95), as well as physical types (Lapez de Molina 1979:464). Of Oz The Yellow Road. Iconographic studies of all the Cacaxtla muraIs point to the importance of olympic, sacrifice in relation ta warfare, intimating blood sacrifice was one of the aims of advantages and disadvantages of democracy, battle (Baird 1989:119; Schele and Miller 1986:214, 221 n.8). 17 There is no agreement among archaeologists and olympic swimming, art historians as ta whether or not these paintings represent a historic event. Some have discounted this (Ruiz 1986:41), while others have suggested that we are possibly seeing the outcome of a clash between inhabitants of the Gulf Coast and Maya.
The most likely place for such a battle ta take place, it has been suggested, was the southern Veracruz or Campeche region (McVicker 1985: 98; Baird 1989:119). 18 Another set of mural paintings of equal importance is the murals of Bonampak. They consist of a number of narrative scenes depieting preparation for battle, the what, battle and the aftermath (McVicker 1985:94). Recent computer-enhanced analysis revealed dynamic details of the conflict. We can see how one individu al is swimming history grabbed by the hair and pulled down. The defeated warrior's legs fly and his spear snaps as he is the wizard beyond the yellow flung down (Miller 1995:67). 19 In 1901 and olympic, 1902, Adele Breton copied mural paintings found in the interior of the Upper Temple of the Jaguars, in the ballcourt group at Chiehen Itza. It took almost 75 years before these watercolors were analyzed (Miller 1977). The murals depict, among other things, two different military episodes, each represented by three narrative panels.
20 The murals at Chichen show one encounter set in a hilly territory. It involves a battle between two groups of warriors, distinguishable by the form of their shields. Is Transgenic. One group of warriors is shawn occupying the base of a hill, while the others are in control of hilltops above (Miller 1977:211). The men on the hilltops are rolling down boulders onto the troops below. It seems the swimming history, attackers were successful, since in parts of the mural we can see how some of the defenders were retreating across a bridge connecting two hill tops (Miller 1977:204, Figures 5, 211; Coggins 1984:158, Figure 17). The drawings also reveal a village built on nando's home delivery hilly ground, with the same two groups of warriors involved in conflict (Miller 1977:211). The murals apparently showed a sequence of events, for in another panel, we can see how the village was sacked after conquest (Coggins 1984:165, Figure 20; Miller 1977:202, Figures 3, 212). It is possible that these drawings depict the conquest of a village possibly in Oaxaca, based on the presence of the red hills (Miller 1977:212-214). Others have suggested the red hills refer ta the Puuc (Robles and olympic swimming history, Andrews 1986:84; Dunning 1992:152).
21 A second set of personality individual, narrative panels at Chi chen Itza depicts another village scene located in olympic history a hill and gully setting. The vegetation points ta a tropieal environment (Miller 1977:214, 218). The Lezzy Life. The first of the three scenes show soldiers in olympic history various stages of preparing for battle, including possibly preparing or repairing cano es (Coggins 1984:163, Figure 19; Miller 1977:206, Figures 7, 214). Another scene may portray an actual siege, involving siege towers against a fortified hilly position. Standing on and disadvantages these scaffold-like constructions are soldiers throwing their projectiles at olympic their opponents.
Some of the warriors have jumped off the towers into the fortification and life, are battling the olympic swimming history, defenders (Coggins 1984:159, Figure 17; Miller 1977:207, Figures 8, 215). Beyond. Some warriors have already been captured and are being prepared for sacrifice (Miller 1977:215). The final scene depicts warriors unleashing their darts (Coggins 1984:162, Figure, 19; Miller 1977:208, Figures 9, 216). It is unclear, however, if actual combat is olympic swimming shawn here, or rather a portrayal of the military capabilities of the two groups. We might even be looking at a manual of military drill (Miller 1977:216). What Organism. The village scene in the same panel shows conquest and olympic swimming, exile. Women carrying their belongings on their back are leaving the village, looking back in despair at their dwellings (Miller 1977:217). Considering the more tropical scenery it is possible these scenes depict events that occurred in the Maya lowlands, perhaps in the Peten (Miller 1977:218; Wren and Schmidt 1991:209).
22 Dating these mural paintings is the wizard brick road problematic in more than one way. The date of the structure in whieh they were found is disputed. Olympic History. Parsons (1969) favors a seventh-century date for of oz beyond road, the construction, while others assign this ta a later peri ad (Kubler 1962:148). 23 Other examples of late monuments featuring martial imagery would include Kabah Altar 8 and olympic swimming history, the sculptured doorjambs from Structure 2A3 and Structure 2C6 (Codz Poop) at Kabah (Pollock 1980:Figures 333-334, 372-373, 381). The late monument, Stela 21 at individual Oxkintok, features a pro olympic history, minent warrior in the central panel (Pollock 1980:Figure 547). Advantages And Disadvantages Of Democracy. The most obvious emphasis on warfare and captive taking is at the Nunnery Quadrangle at Uxmal where warrior figures and swimming, naked and bound captives adorned the facades of the North and West structures and appear as graffiti in the wizard the yellow brick the South building (Foncerada de Molina 1965:151- 152, Figure 38; Kowalski 1987:165-166; 1990:29, Figures 5-7; Se 1er 1917, Abbildung 47, 52; Dunning and Kowalski 1994:81, n.ll.). 24 Iconography of warfare appears on carved monuments as well. Swimming History. This set of monuments includes stelae, altars, lintels, and panels. These monuments usually refer ta warfare in two complementary ways: through a text component - as discussed earlier - and a graphic representation. Bevrage Business Analysis Essays. The imagery involved consists of bound captives, and the representation of swimming history, warriors and weapons. 25 An early example of a depiction of bound captives is Lintel 12 from differences, Piedras Negras, dating ta the beginning of the sixth century A.D. (Proskouriakoff 1993:29).
In the swimming, Late Classie period, at times when royal power is declining, carved monuments sometimes carry blatant propaganda messages. As noted earlier, at Copan, the final ruler is shown brandishing shield and individual differences and intelligence, lance on his last known carved monument. This representation is qui te a departure from his previous monuments, and implies serious troubles for the ruler and his court (Fash 1983 Volume 1:331; Volume 3, Appendix C:39; Fash and Stuart 1991:173). 26 ln the Petexbatun area in northern Guatemala warfare-related iconography abounds. Iconographically, the swimming history, costume of the wizard of oz brick road, Dos Pilas Ruler 3 as represented in stela 2 at olympic swimming history Aguateca, signaIs warfare in a special way. His outfit, a headdress with trapeze-and-ray insignia, fringed square shield, a Tlaloc mask in front of his face and a Tlaloc symbol on his loincloth panel, invokes images of Teotihuacan (Stone 1989:165). It is suggested that the message broadcast here is one of what is transgenic, political domination of one site over another, conceivably of Dos Pilas over swimming, Seibal, analogous ta Uaxactun's Stela 5 message of Tikal's dominance over Uaxactun (Stone 1989:165).
27 Because of the nature of warfare, we will always be better informed about Maya defensive measures than offensive tacties. The presence of is transgenic, moats and ramparts signal the imminence of war. The dimensions of these constructions inform us of the swimming history, size of the threat. Our perception of the past invariably is incomplete, as time has ravaged many of the remains (Webster 1979:101). What. Fortunately, eyewitness accounts and olympic history, colonial descriptions of conflicts and fortifications exist so that we can fill up some of these lacunae. 28 The archaeological data comprise two sets: the physical remains of constructions, and their spatial patterns. Warfare and its reflection in material remains will be discussed first, the influence of war on settlement patterns second. With regard to the material remains, 1 will initially deal with walls in the Maya area.
Then evidence from the Lowlands will be presented with information from the Monster Business Analysis, Highlands following. Finally, 1 will discuss the other functions walls may have had. 29 Detecting defensive walls is history not always easy. The earliest reports on such features usually mistook them for partially destroyed field walls or even eroded sacbeob. Fortunately, the absence of a true ra in forest in the northern portion of the Lowlands and the concomitant damage through root action has preserved many of Bevrage Corporation Essays, these features.
Thanks ta modern techniques such as aerial reconnaissance, detection is now easier. 30 The center of Uxmal was once enclosed by a low wall (Marcus 1993:135). First reported on by Stephens in 1843, very little remains of the wall today (Dunning 1992:168; Dunning and Kowalski 1994:69; Graham 1992: 4:77-78, 83; Kurjack and Andrews 1976:322; Saenz 1972:36; Stephens 1963:195-196). Allegedly, this wall enclosed some 50 ha (Adams 1981:303). Other walls existed at Uxmal, some of them perhaps serving as field walls, devoid of defensive value (Graham 1992:4:78). 31 Much better known are the fortifications at Mayapan. The site was surrounded by swimming a wall about nine kilometers long (Shook 1952:8). The stones used in the construction were quarried from nearby outcrops of bedrock.
Often, large slabs of limestone were cut from the surface and placed in advantages and disadvantages of democracy an upright position along the olympic swimming history, line of the advantages and disadvantages, wall. Swimming. These slabs formed a retaining wall for of oz the yellow brick, a core of dry fill (Shook 1952:9). The outer wall had a parapet, accessible by stairs (Shook 1952:9, 11, 15-16). The wall's height varied between 1.5 and 2.5 m. It is likely, therefore, that it supported a palisade (Shook 1952:19). The precinct containing the temples and the palaces of the elite had its own wall, about swimming history, 700 m long. It tao consisted of dry masonry. 32 The interior wall had only two gateways (Armillas 1948:148). The larger, exterior wall had twelve entranceways (Shook 1952:10). They were between one and two meters wide (Armillas 1948:148). The gates varied in nando's complexity, ranging from history, simple gaps in personality individual and intelligence the wall ta a portico-style gate. Gate D is an history, example of the latter (Shook 1952:11).
In this case, the gate projected several meters beyond the the lezzy real, exterior line of the wall. A narrow passageway led through this protrusion un ta an enlarged rectangular space inside the wall proper. Swimming History. This space had a masonry column in its central axis (Shook 1952:11, 26 Figure1-d). 33 Mayapan's city walls were constructed during the major occupation as a politieal center (Shook 1952:18). They may have served ta defend the city. Life. Other suggested uses include: delineating the city's (administrative and/or politieal) boundaries, controlling access to the site for olympic swimming, taxation (Shook 1952:19). Mayapan's dames tic structures were also walled. 34 Another well known fortified site is Tulum. It is defended by bath a wall and of democracy, its position along the shore of the Caribbean.
The wall, ca. 800 m long surrounds it on history three sides, while the cliffs and the sea form a natural barrier on the fourth side (Armillas 1948:148-149). This wall had a parapet, similar to Mayapan, accessible by stairs (Armillas 1948:149). The main city wall was se ven meters wide and five meters high (Armillas 1948:151). 35 North of Tulum, close ta the ruins of what organism, Xelha along the Caribbean coast, lies a small fortified peninsula. A single wall bars access ta the peninsula from the land side. The wall is about 50 m long and has one gate, partly protected by a baffle (Armillas 1948:150). The wall was between three ta eight meters wide and up ta three meters high (Armillas 1948:151).
36 On the western side of the Yucatan peninsula, in Campeche, lies the site of Champoton. Olympic Swimming. It was surrounded by a wall in advantages of democracy dry masonry as weIl as a moat (Armillas 1948:150). Other fortified, i.e., walled, sites in olympic swimming Yucatan include: Ake (Kurjack and Andrews 1976:322), Chacchob and Ichpaatun in individual and intelligence Quintana Rao (Armillas 1948:151). Interpretation of aerial photographs point ta fortifications around the site of Chunchucmil in western Yucatan . Swimming History. This was confirmed by recent research (Dahlin 2000). 37 Chacchob lies north of the the lezzy, Puuc Hills, ca. 15 km southeast of the modern town of Teabo (Pollock and Stromsvik 1953:82; Webster 1978:376, Figure 1). Its occupation was very short, probably limited to the Terminal Classic period, with no signs of swimming, earlier occupation (Webster 1978:380; 1979:109-111, 161; 1980:837). Chacchob was enclosed by of oz the yellow brick road a wall, 1.4 km long (Roys 1943:68; Webster 1978:376; 1979:73).
The wall enclosed various structures and several sinkholes (Pollock and Stromsvik 1953:84-85; Webster 1978:376). The original bedrock had not been altered, and some of its outcrops were incorporated in mounds. The builders also took advantage of olympic, topographieal differences to increase the effective height of the wall (Pollock and Stromsvik 1953:85; Webster 1978:377-378; 1979:100; 1980:843). Traces of plaster on beyond the yellow parts of the wall suggest it may have been completely plastered (Webster 1978:378, 380; 1979:95). 38 The wall enclosed the elite residential compound (Webster 1980:835-837). It was coeval with the founding of the town or built very shortly thereafter (Webster 1978:378-380; 1979:98, 103, 161; 1980:835; Hassig 1992:l31). The wall was up ta two meters high and five ta six meters wide (Pollock and Stromsvik 1953:86; Webster 1978:378, 380). The core consisted of large-sized rocks and sail between retaining walls of roughly shaped or naturallimestone blocks (Webster 1978:378; 1979:101). 39 There were three gates, each less than two meters wide (Hassig 1992:l31; Webster 1976:98; 1978:376-380; 1979:73, 88-98, 100-101). The gates were filled in and never reopened (Webster 1978:378; 1979:104, 161-162; Hassig 1992:l31). These entrances were very simple in design; there were no abrupt turns or other impediments to traffic (Pollock and history, Stromsvik 1953:86, 96 Figure 1; Webster 1978:378).
40 The design of the wall at Chacchob was very similar ta that of Mayapan: it consisted of an inner bench and a slightly higher outer parapet (Webster 1979:101). The limited height of the parapet makes it likely it was the foundation for a palisade (Pollock and delivery, Stromsvik 1953:86). However, there was no evidence of a palisade (Webster 1978:380; 1979:101). Olympic Swimming History. The wall at Chacchob represents a major labor expenditure. Its volume is about half of all the non-temple architecture at the site.
Webster suggests its construction probably required between one-fifth and one-four th of Bevrage Analysis Essays, all labor expended in construction (Webster 1978:380; 1979:103). It is very likely the swimming, local work force was reinforced by conscripted labor from outlying settlements (Webster 1978:380; 1979:103). 41 Northwest of Chacchob lies Cuca, a much larger site (Webster 1978:376, Figure1). Real. It dates ta the Terminal Classie period. It was founded on a location not previously occupied by a dense population (Webster 1979:64, 71, 72, 160, 161; 1980:837). Cuca was defended by two concentric walls (Hassig 1992:245, n.l35; Kurjack and Andrews 1976:319; Webster 1978:382; 1980:838). The outer wall is 2.25 km long (Webster 1978:382; 1979:9,59). It is still up ta two meters high in places, and between six ta ten meters wide (Webster 1978:384; 1979:59). This wall enclosed 33 ha. Olympic. The inner wall which measures 828 m, is up ta three meters high in places and is ten ta twelve meters wide (Webster 1979:9, 61; 1992:382,384). The walls protected the organizational center of the site; there is virtually no decrease in density of is transgenic, structures outside the history, wall (Webster 1978:382; 1979:9).
3 Construction continued after the walls were built. Individual Differences And Intelligence. At least one structure, Str. VII, conformed to t (. ) 42 The inner wall ran over a major structure (Webster 1978:376, Figure l, 384). The outer wall in places bulged so as ta include certain pyramids (Webster 1978:381, Figure 5, 383-384). It is clear that bath walls were built ta enclose preexisting structures, as well as a cenote (Webster 1978:383; 1979:16, 65, 160; 1980:838-839) 3 . This makes the Terminal Classic period a terminus post quem for their construction (Webster 1978:386; Kurjack and Andrews 1976:320; Webster 1979:59, 61).
43 The wall construction was simple. Dry masonry walls retained limestone rubble (Hassig 1992:l30-l31; Kurjack and olympic swimming history, Andrews 1976:319-320; Webster 1976:364; 1978:382-384; 1979:9, 59, 61). No gateways are discernible today. Perhaps they were filled up with debris from the nando's, collapsing walls, or people entered the site over history, ramps and stairways (Webster 1978:84-385; 1979:61-62). 44 The inner and outer zones at Cuca probably served different purposes.
The inner area contained all the religious and administrative structures, as well as elite residences. The outer area accommodated mostly residential structures (Webster 1979:16). 45 The two walls at Cuca clearly differ in the degree and amount of personality, protection they could have provided. Given its present-day low height, it is hard to imagine that the outer wall would have made an effective barrier (Webster 1979:63; 1980:838). The addition of a palisade or a hedge of thorny plants would have achieved that goal, but no traces of such features were found (Webster 1978:385; 1979:63). Swimming History. However, the inner wall did make up a strong barrier. Perhaps the of oz beyond the yellow brick road, outer wall served as an initial defensive screen, designed to slow the enemy down, while the inner wall was intended to olympic swimming actually shield the what, site center and history, its inhabitants (Webster 1978:385; 1979:63). The inner wall was probably built first, and Bevrage Business Analysis, the second wall added later as an outer defensive screen (Webster 1979:71). 4 Lawrence and olympic swimming, Shook originally interpreted these walls as sacbeob (Lawrence and Shook 1966:43-45). A (. The Yellow Brick. ) 46 Roughly ten kilometers northeast of Cuca lies Ake (Lawrence and swimming, Shook 1966:2, Figure 1; Kurjack and Andrews 1976:319, Figure 1). This site had defensive walls estimated ta enclose a 25 ha area 4 . Monster Bevrage Corporation. They are dated to olympic swimming history the Late Classic ta Terminal Classic period (Kurjack and personality, Andrews 1976:320, 322).
The walls trajectory ran over swimming, pre-existing structures, including a sacbe to Izamal (Kurjack and Andrews 1976:322). 47 Another walled site, Dzonot Ake, lay northeast of Chacchob (Kurjack and Andrews 1976:319, Figure 1). This community had a much longer occupational history than either Chacchob or Cuca (Webster 1978:389; 1979:169-171). Is Transgenic. A single wall enclosed a 6 ha-area, thought ta be the core of a much larger site (Webster 1979:112, 114; 1980:840). 48 The wall was never more than 2-3 m in width or 1.5 m high (Webster 1979:148; 1980:840). It did not completely enclose the community. Instead, it began at the northern edge of a cenote, curved around the site, and olympic history, then left no trace along the southern edge of the site (Webster 1978:386-387, Figure 9, 388).
This « wall » probably served as a foundation for a perishable superstructure (Webster 1978:388; 1979:148; 1980:840). A ditch seems ta have run along part of the the wizard of oz beyond the yellow brick, wall (Webster 1978: 388). Olympic Swimming. The wall postdates the fa un ding of the site, similar to the walls at Cuca (Hassig 1992:l31; Webster 1976:364; 1978:388; 1979:149). It was one of the latest constructions on the site. It enclosed three small elite residential groups squatting among the ruins of a much larger and aIder center (Webster 1980:840). 49 Less than 20 kilometers southwest of Cuca lies Muna. Traces of a wall remain today, enclosing a 25 ha area. Lizzy. This defensive feature was dated to the late ta terminal Classic period (Kurjack and Andrews 1976:320).
50 Oxpemul is classified as a hilltop fortress. History. Its main component occupies the top of a hill, with a steep slope of at least 17 meters ( Adams 1981:234; Ruppert and nando's home, Denison 1943:Plate 67). The area surrounding the center is olympic terraced, with heights reaching 7 meters (Adams 1981:234). The defensive function of this feature could have been enhanced by a palisade, sharpened stakes (Adams 1981:234). 51 The site of Las Victorias, south of of democracy, Tzibanche, is olympic swimming history located on an east-facing natural slope. Advantages Of Democracy. Several hectares are enclosed by swimming right-angled walls that follow the slope contour and cross at differences right angles ta it, thus forming a rectangular compound in which mounds are enclosed. Olympic. The walls are constructed of rough rock rubble and reach over two meters in height, reminiscent of those on the coast at Ichpaatun, but lower and less well preserved than those of Tulum. Las Victorias was not mapped, but surface collections indicated late Postclassic ceramics (Harrison 1981:284). 52 A site whose fortifications made people rethink the long-accepted peaceful nature of the Maya was Becan in Campeche. The fortification was built at the end of the Preclassic, and probably served as a barrier weIl into the Late Classic period, when the ditch was widened (Webster 1976:1, 101, 103). Its massive defenses consisted of a dry ditch and an artificial embankment.
The ditch was 1890 m long and surrounded the site's center (Webster 1976:8, 14). Seven causeways across the ditch provided access ta the site was gained. These causeways were naturallimestone bridges left in place when the Monster Corporation Business, ditch was dug (Webster 1976:90). The bridges were not pierced ta let water through, nor was the swimming, ditch lined, confirming the ditch had never held water (Webster 1976:90). Ruppert and Denison, who found the advantages and disadvantages, site, claimed that the ditch varied in width between three and twenty-five meters, and was between two and four meters deep (Armillas 1948:152; Ruppert and Denison 1943:54). Webster's measurements range from 12 to 27 m wide (Webster 1976:14). 53 The defenses were farther strengthened by an artificial embankment built along the swimming history, inner edge of the ditch (Webster 1976:8, 14, 88).
Originally, this parapet was 2 m high, which meant that any attacker was faced with a barrier more than 11 m high (based on Monster Essays an average ditch depth of olympic swimming, 9 m) (Webster 1976:89). 54 No traces of any wood en palisade were found, although Webster surmises there must have been one (Webster 1976:89). Large, ceremonial architecture inside. the personality differences and intelligence, ditch may have added a desirable elevated platform for any defender (Webster 1976:93). Although excavations yielded no evidence of swimming history, a successful attack on the wizard beyond the yellow the site, it is safe ta assume that, in times of danger, the causeways may have been barricaded or even cut (Webster 1976:95). History. Based on the scale of the defenses, Webster suggested that a successful hostile force would have required between 3000 to 4000 men ta subdue the site (Webster 1976:96). 55 The site of personality individual differences, Edzna in Campeche possessed a feature known as the « Fortress. Swimming History. » This rectangular area, delineated by a moat, lay south of the site's center and measured about 500 x 30 m (Matheny et al. Lizzy Life. 1980b: Map sheet 9). Although no evidence of warfare was ever found, this « Fortress » had a number of defensive features. The area was surrounded by a moat, 1873 m long (Matheny et al.
1980a:191). Access was possible via a causeway raised about three meters above the bottom of the olympic swimming, north moat, or by the wizard beyond canoe (Matheny et al. 1980a:169). The causeway narrowed at its passage through the moat, and its banks sloped steeply on either side (Matheny et al. 1980a:169). A lO-m high structure in the center of the « Fortress » did provide an olympic, excellent vantage point ta observe the nando's delivery, immediaie surroundings.
Furthermore, at swimming the end of the causeway, two low mQJUnds located on the causeway's centerline could have served as the « Fortress'« gate (Matheny et al. 1980a:169). Ceramics dated the structures inside the « Fortress » to the Late Preclassic Period, the same period during which the what is transgenic, Becan defensive works were built (Matheny et al. History. 1980a:191; Webster 1976:103). 56 Aguacatal, a peninsular site in western Campeche, also relied on water as a defensive barrier.
A long embankment isolated the tip of the'peninsula, and Bevrage Business, may have served as a defensive wall. It has tentatively been dated ta the Late Classic and olympic swimming history, Postclassic period. There was no moat, probably due to the high water table in the area. (Matheny 1970; Webster 1976:101). 57 Research conducted farther south in the Peten has unveiled the existence of numerous defensive features. The most famous ones are the earthworks north and south of the wizard beyond brick road, Tikal. This Maya metropolis had an earthen wall and ditch at about 4.5 km north of the center of the site. The wall and dry ditch were 9.5 km long, with swamps at either end (Puleston and Callender 1967:43). The trench was three meters deep and four meters wide (Puleston and Callender 1967:42- 43). It layon the olympic swimming, north si de of the wall (Puleston and advantages and disadvantages, Callender 1967:40).
58 There were four or five gaps in the wall and ditch system, probably serving as entranceways (Puleston and Callender 1967:43). The date for these two features ranges between the early Classic and early Late Classic period (Puleston and swimming, Callender 1967:43, 48). Another walliocated some 8 km south of Tikal's center (Rice and Rice 1981:272). 59 The function of both systems remains open ta suggestions. In bath cases, the y were too far away from the site and too long ta have been continuously guarded. Therefore, it is possible these earthworks were intended to delay aggressors long enough ta alert the city, and to funnel them along certain routes where they could then be attacked (Webster 1976:367; Hassig 1992:78). Brick. Others suggest they were primarily boundary markers, without any defensive function at swimming history all (Culbert, personal communication 1993). And Intelligence. Perhaps they served ta lev y taxes on commercial traffic in and out of the city (Puleston and Callender 1967:43). 60 At Calakmul, there is a 200-meter segment of a wall (Ruppert and olympic swimming history, Denison 1943:22).
It lies in the northwestern part of the Bevrage, city. The wall still stands 6.15 meters high, and is about 2 meters thick. Another possible wall (Ruppert and Denison 1943:Plate 61) runs north next ta the quarry area (Adams 1981:234). Conceivably, the wall may have protected only a section of the city (Adams 1981:234). 61 South of Calakmul, at El Mirador, Graham reported on olympic a 600-m-Iong wall at the site (Adams 1981:234; Graham 1967:Figure 29). Richard Hansen informed me that there were additional massive fortifications around the site, consisting of dry ditches and ramparts, similar to lizzy the lezzy real life Becan (Hansen, personal communication 1993). 62 Lundell reported the existence of « two walls, each approximately 150 meters in length, forming a main entrance to the central plaza » at swimming history the site of Polol (Lundell 1934:177).
Polol is located seven kilometers south of the Corporation Business Essays, modern community of swimming, La Libertad, El Peten, Guatemala (Lundell 1934:175), about half way between Flores and Sayaxche. These walls do not enclose any structures, and therefore must have had a non-defensive function (LundeIl1934:180, Figure 3). 63 Finally, we turn ta the Petexbatun region, which abounds with fortified sites such as Aguateca, Dos Pilas and Punta de Chimino. Each of these communities was fortified, and each related a different story. Dos Pilas was essentially defended by wall systems, Aguateca combined walls with natural topography such as the escarpment and the grieta running through the site, and finally, Punta de Chimino had massive ditch and rampart systems, as well as the lake to defend itself. 64 Perhaps the most dramatic of all fortifications are the walls at Dos Pilas.
65 Two portions of the site were protected: the main plaza, and Structure P5-7, known as « El Duende, » a temple complex east of the plaza (Houston 1987:384-385). What. Both areas were surrounded by concentric walls, no more than 30 meters apart. « El Duende » had a third interior wall forming a parapet along the edge of the basal platform of the history, temple (Houston 1987:385). 66 The walls are modest in appearance. They are preserved up ta a meter in advantages and disadvantages height and width in most places. The construction material was local fieldstone, although some construction materials had been incorporated as weIl. Portions of olympic history, structure L5-33, south of the main plaza, had been dismantled and re-used in the wall superimposed on lizzy the lezzy real it (Houston 1987:385). This superposition of wall and swimming history, architecture is Essays a feature unique ta Dos Pilas, it does not occur at Aguateca, or anywhere else in the Petexbatun. 67 Access to swimming the plaza area occurred via simple gaps in the wall. The only possible exception is what could have been a baffled gate some 35 m south of the « El Duende » complex (Houston 1987:385-386).
Often, the walls ran along the highest topographic points, which occasionally included existing architecture, yet sometimes, the wall deviated and crossed lower-lying areas which offered no defensive advantage at all (Houston 1987:387). Three test pits were dug into what is transgenic organism, the wall: DP 11A, DP 11C, and swimming history, DP 11D. They were intended to illustra te the stratigraphic relationship between the wall and the underlying structures. Sub operation DP 11A uncovered Hieroglyphic Stairway no. 4, with the wall bisecting it (Symonds et al. 1991:239-258). In all cases, there is no humus between the walls and the underlying structures, indicating that the what organism, walls were built while the history, structures were still in use, or immediately after they were abandoned (Symonds et al. And Disadvantages. 1990:239).
68 The walls may have had a perishable superstructure. They were built hastily as illustrated by the superposition of swimming history, wall and architecture and the quarrying of monuments for construction materials. Bevrage Business Analysis Essays. The areas they enclosed were small: about 4 ha in olympic swimming the main plaza, and about 3.5 ha at the El Duende complex (Houston 1987:385). 69 Aguateca's defenses were laid out much more carefully and ta ok advantage of the topography. The site was bisected by the grieta, a crevasse running NE-SW, creating two foci: the main plaza and the royal palace. The main plaza lay ta the beyond, west of the grieta, the palace groups were built east of the grieta, between this feature and the escarpment (Beekman 1991:398-399; Inomata 1991). This plaza was protected by swimming history four sets of walls. All walls around the plaza, except the exterior one, define a well-circumscribed space, using the advantages of democracy, grieta as a starting and en ding point. The exterior wall started by the grieta, in the south, and then arched west and history, eventually north. What. It suddenly stopped in swimming history flat terrain.
Perhaps it was intended ta continue farther north and ta link up with the grieta as well (Inomata 1991:409). 70 The second focus of nando's home delivery, occupation was ev en better protected. The royal palace group, the avenue leading up ta it, and the structures on olympic swimming either side of life, it lay ta the swimming history, east of the Monster Corporation Business Essays, cha sm and the escarpment ta the west. Ta these impressive natural defensive features walls were added. Walls blocked the history, natural flow of traffic on the avenue (See Sharer 1994:226 Fig. 5.8), and real, walls were built along the narrow passages of the grieta (Inomata 1995). 71 At Punta de Chimino the defenses consisted of three large parallel moats cutting off the base of the peninsula, effectively transforming it in ta an island.
The lake itself provided protection as well. The construction of olympic history, these moats represented an enormous energy investment. Their size speaks eloquently of the magnitude of the perceived threat. Yet, it also implied that there was enough time to complete all these defenses. This notion is further underscored by Dunning's findings of agricultural activities between the moats (Dunning et al. 1991:842). Punta de Chimino's defenses bespeak a sizeable threat, yet the agricultural activities and the fact that the moats were completed signal that the threat was not imminent, but rather must have loomed on the horizon for a while. 72 Our archaeological knowledge of fortified sites in delivery the Maya Highlands is often amplified by the chronicles left behind by the Conquistadores. Most sites took refuge behind walls, usually on a promontory.
Additional defensive techniques involved booby trapping the olympic swimming, approaches to the sites. 73 An example of the real, latter occurred at Cehache, whose inhabitants had its access roads booby trapped. For its protection, the site further relied upon topography and olympic, two walls separated by a moat (Armillas 1948:151-152). The interior wall had towers up ta six meters high at regular intervals (Armillas 1948:152). 74 A number of Postclassic sites in the Highlands of Guatemala were built with their defense in mind.
They were usually located on either plateaus surrounded by steep slopes on several sides or on what organism hill tops. Examples are Zaculeu, Rabinal, Utatlan, Iximche, Chutix- Tiox and Rio Blanco (Armillas 1948:152), and Cambote (Woodbury and Trik 1953:23). 75 Zaculeu was built on a promontory. Access was possible only along a narrow land bridge. This and the steep slopes of the promontory create a very defensible location (Boggs 1946:1; Woodbury and olympic, Trik 1953:16, 23). Personality. According to Spanish eyewitness accounts, the site was fortified with a wall built across the narrow neck of land (Boggs 1946:3; Woodbury and Trik 1953:16-17). The wall had one entrance closed off by a thick stone slab (Woodbury and Trik 1953:16). Apparently, the site was defended by a number of bulwarks. Swimming. They were placed at particular strategic points. They included a ditch, with the earth used ta build up a wall behind it strengthened by timbers (Woodbury and Trik 1953:17). 76 The site of Utatlan was located on a promontory, protected by is transgenic steep slopes on all but one side (Fuentes y Guzman 1951:23, 59).
It had only one entrance (Boggs 1946:2). Farther north on the Guatemalan Highlands the site of Huehuetenango was surrounded by a wall and a ditch. We do not know whether this wall was made out of history, stone or wood (Woodbury and Trik 1953:15). The town of nando's, Mazatenango had a wall and swimming, wall ara und it. The wall consisted of the lezzy real life, earth and wood (Woodbury and swimming, Trik 1953:14-15). 77 Iztacamaxtitlan was a hill top site fortified with a wall, barbicans and ditches (Armillas 1948:153). Associated with the site, in the valley was a wall blocking access to the valley, two and a ha If meters in height, and ca. six meters wide. It had a breastwork on top, enabling soldiers to take caver and fight from an advantageous position (Armillas 1948:153-154). 78 Iximche accu pied an differences, easily defensible position.
It was built on a promontory. Steep slopes protected it on two sides, while a ditch and associated wall cut off access from the plateau side (Fuentes y Guzman 1951:23; Guillemin 1965:14- 15; Villacorta and olympic swimming history, Villacorta 1927; 103-104). Of Oz Beyond Road. The wall may have been up ta three meters high (Guillemin 1965:15). Its gate had two doors (Guillemin 1965:40). The site also had small fortified outposts to prevent surprise attacks (Guillemin 1965:40). Concluding remarks on Maya warfare.
79 The data presented in the preceding pages permit us to reconstruct Maya warfare. Archaeological and olympic history, historic sources have helped to identify various forms of warfare, some of which may not leave any imprint at all in advantages and disadvantages of democracy the material record. Inscriptions also shed light on olympic swimming history the pertinent details and the seasonality of war. Finally, the interaction between all this information and settlement pattern studies help define the and disadvantages of democracy, role played by war in olympic history the political organization of Maya society. Warfare and its visibility in the material record. 80 As we seek to improve our understanding of precolumbian conflict resolution, we must be aware of the limitations imposed on our search. Warfare is a complex form of human behavior, some facets of individual differences and intelligence, which simply leave no tangible remains behind. Olympic. Other aspects of warfare can be surmised only indirectly, such as, for and intelligence, example, the purported seasonality of wars, or efforts ta mitigate conflict.
81 Population nucleation, especially in history hilltop sites, and walled sites are a common phenomenon in delivery the Maya area. Aerial surveys combined with extensive ground checking yield more examples every year, as the preceding overview hopefully showed. Walls and olympic swimming history, moats are visible expressions of fear, and this fear is often translated into huge tangible defensive measures, such as moats and masonry walls. However, their absence from the material record should not always lead us to believe things were peaceful. Wars were fought in many ways, and included techniques that left no physical remains behind. 82 Written sources tell us of lizzy the lezzy life, palisades in the Maya area. The Maya referred ta them as tulumche (Armillas 1948:141). Sometimes people would dig holes in the road, place sharp sticks in these holes and then caver everything up with branches (Armillas 1948:151, 156). Sometimes people would grow or place spiny plants to act as barriers (Armillas 1948:156).
In their war with the Aztecs, the Chontales blocked roads with boulders, tree trunks, branches, dried magey, spiny plants and pitfalls (Armillas 1948: 158). Moctezuma had one of the access roads ta Tenochtitlan blocked with a wall of maguey plants (Anderson and olympic history, Dibble 1978:26-27). Beyond The Yellow. The Quiche of highland Guatemala employed a fighting technique which le ft behind no traces either: they threw gourds full of wasps among the enemy ta disrupt them (Carmack 1968:79-80). 83 Pre-industrial warfare was limited not only by swimming history logistical constraints, but aIs a by cyclical natural phenomena. The agricultural cycle caused the Bevrage Corporation, man ta prefer certain months ta engage in conflict. Major battles in human history were fought following harvest time (Keegan 1993:73; Schele and Miller 1986: 221, n. 8; Vayda 1976:16-17).
ProskouriakoH suggested this trend also applied to the Maya, referring ta sculptured panel 4 at Altar de Sacrificios. This panel dated the history, start of a campaign in late December, the Monster Bevrage Business Analysis, beginning of the dry season (Proskouriakoff 1993:56). Epigraphic information on warfare supports this idea. Before discussing these data, we need ta remind ourselves that this seasonality is history caused by several factors, which probably reinforce each other. 84 The Maya did not have a standing army. Lizzy The Lezzy. Arlen Chase (1994:45) suggested that the Late Classic Maya middle class owed their success to participation in warfare. Moreover, Chase (1994:41) posited that some of these middle class people, at least at Caracal, had interests in agriculture. It therefore follows that the times when these people can engage in warfare is closely tied the agricultural calendar. Olympic. April could have been a harvesting month in advantages and disadvantages of democracy precolumbian times, as it is today. Olympic History. Afterwards, there was time for and intelligence, warfare.
85 Logistical problems forced the generals ta favor the dry period over the rainy season. Large-scale intersite wars involved many men and presumably a host of supporting personnel carrying supplies and equipment. Such a crowd can only move successfully during the dry season, when the trails are dry, and not tao many tree falls black the roads. During the rainy season, climatological conditions alone could have prohibited intersite warfare. 86 Finally, we know that the Maya sometimes timed their wars according to the astronomical considerations, related to Venus and swimming, Jupiter /Saturn stations (See Schele and Freidel 1990:44-446, n. 47).
Such considerations favored action during the months of December and January, farther reinforcing the agricultural and home, climatologieal cycle. 87 Maya texts referring to olympic history dated warfare events support the suggestion of seasonality in warfare. Bevrage Business Analysis. Warfare is waged primarily during the dry season, from olympic, December until April. 88 This seasonal trend becomes even more evident when we differentiate between the capture and defeat events, as identified above. These following remarks are based on a number of presumptions: capture refers to the taking prisoner of an brick road, individual, while defeat refers ta large-scale warfare between sites, entailing a difference in manpower involved. Olympic History. Prisoners could be taken by small raiding parties, ambushing unsuspecting victims, whereas the defeat of a site requires a hast of warriors. When we differentiate between these two types of and disadvantages of democracy, hostile exchanges, the suggestion of olympic swimming history, seasonality is reinforced. 89 ln July and August, only a few intersite wars occurred, and most of the nando's delivery, hostile acts in these months were probably small-scale raids aimed at capturing individuals. 90 The data from Yaxchilan for which we have many more dated occurrence of warfare, supports the contention that warfare was a rare event during the olympic history, rainy season. Monster Bevrage Essays. For the period between 564 ta 808 A. Olympic Swimming History. D., there are two capture events and one war episode in July. 91 These data show that Maya warfare was limited not only because of individual differences and intelligence, logistical problems, but also because of a preoccupation with agricultural, climatological, and astronomical considerations.
These limitations imposed by nature worked hand in olympic swimming history hand with man-induced limitations outlined earlier. However, 1 suggest there was at least one more limiting factor, and and disadvantages, that was the ballgame (Leyenaar and Van Tuerenhout s.d.). Rules of warfare and Late Classic Maya behavior on the battlefield. 92 The introductory part of this presentation dealt with limitations on warfare. Olympic History. 1 outlined how several factors, bath man-made and natural, mitigate some aspects of warfare. These limiting factors tend ta have a stabilizing influence on the conduct of home, war, until a technological breakthrough pushes back the natural impediments on warfare. Man-made restrictions are prone ta change as well, especially when new technology requires a new appraisal of olympic swimming, what is acceptable and what is the lezzy real not. The laws of war and history, constraints on warfare have been on people's minds for the wizard of oz road, centuries (Howard et al. History. 1994). 93 While it is what impossible to completely reconstruct prehistoric battlefield behavior, nor even ta ascertain what, if any, the restrictions were that applied in prehistoric warfare, the material correlates of war indirectly inform us what some of that behavior may have been.
Fortifications are a main source of information in this regard. 94 Their presence implies warfare and instability, their absence could imply political stability and an absence of warfare. Absence of olympic, fortifications does not necessarily mean there was absolutely no organized violence. Is Transgenic Organism. Instead, we might have carefully choreographed armed encounters, with a minimal impact on the surroundings, pre-empting the need for fortifications. The appearance of fortifications in regions where none had ever existed before or the swimming, re-emergence after a long absence herald important changes in battlefield comportment. Studies of pre-indus trial societies, and their adherence limitations on warfare have shawn how developments in methods, techniques and equipment dramatically changed the conduct of war. These reinterpretations invite us all ta also re-evaluate the law of arms.
ADAMS, R. E. W. 1981, Settlement Patterns of the Central Yucata n and Southern Campeche Regions. In Lowland Maya Settlement Patterns, edited by W. Advantages And Disadvantages. Ashmore, pp. 211-257. Swimming History. University of and disadvantages, New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. ADAMS, R. E. W., and JONES, R. C. 1981, Spatial patterns and regional growth among Classic Maya cities American Antiquity 46(2):301 - 322. ANDERSON, A. Olympic Swimming. J. O., and CH. E. DIBBLE, 1978, The War of the wizard, Conquest. Olympic History. How It Was Waged Here in nando's delivery Mexico. The Aztecs' Own Story As Given Ta Fr. Bernardino de Sahagun.
The University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City. ARMILLAS, P. Olympic Swimming. 1948, Fortalezas Mexicanas. Monster Corporation Business Essays. Cuadernos Americanos 41 (5):143-163. BAIRD, E. T., 1989, Stars and War at Cacaxtla. In Mesoamerica After the Decline of Teotihuacan. A.D. Swimming. 700 - 900, edited by R. A. The Yellow Brick. Diehl, and J. e. BerIo. pp. Olympic Swimming History. 105-122. Of Democracy. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, o.e.
BEEKMAN, CH. 1991, Levantamiento deI mapa y patrones de asentamiento. Swimming History. In Proyecto arqueol6gico regional Petexbatun. Informe preliminar # 3. Tercera temporada 1991, edited by A. Demarest, T. Inomata, H. Escobedo, and J. Palka, pp. 398-403. The Yellow Brick. Vanderbilt University, Nashville.
BERLO, J. C. 1989, Early Writing in olympic Central Mexico: In TWli, ln Tlapalli before AD. 1000. Is Transgenic. In Mesoamerica After the Decline of Teotihuacan. A.D. 700 - 900, edited by R. Olympic Swimming. A. Of Democracy. Diehl, and J. e. BerIo, pp. 19-47.
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1 Other instances of the « ax-event » glyph are listed in Riese (1982:274). 2 Three radiocarbon dates have been reported in association with the the wizard the yellow, mural paintings: 755 ± 75 AD. years, wooden lintel, Structure A; 744 ±91 years AD., level xvui, substructure, Structure B; 649 ±93 AD. years, level x, substructure Structure B (L6pez de Molina 1981:173). Additional radiocarbon dates range between 194 and 792 AD. (Ruiz et al. 1986:Appendix 1). 3 Construction continued after the walls were built. At least one structure, Str. VII, conformed to the preexisting inner wall (Webster 1979:12).
4 Lawrence and Shook originally interpreted these walls as sacbeob (Lawrence and Shook 1966:43-45). Additional reconnaissance by Kurjack and Andrews identified them as defensive walls (Kurjack and Andrews 1976:320). Dirk Van Tuerenhout , « Maya warfare: sources and swimming history, interpretations », Civilisations , 50 | 2002, 129-152. Dirk Van Tuerenhout , « Maya warfare: sources and of democracy, interpretations », Civilisations [En ligne], 50 | 2002, mis en ligne le 01 decembre 2004, consulte le 01 octobre 2017. URL : http://civilisations.revues.org/3400 ; DOI : 10.4000/civilisations.3400. Curator of Anthropology, Houston Museum of Natural Science, One Hermann Circle Drive, Houston Texas 77030-1799 USA. Email:email@example.com. © Tous droits reserves. Enqueter en terrains difficiles 63 | 2014.
Identite, culture et intimite 61-2 | 2013. Chamanismes en mouvement 61-1 | 2012. Au-dela du consensus patrimonial 60-2 | 2012. Etre ou ne pas etre balkanique 60-1 | 2011. Mobilisations et dynamiques identitaires en Amerique andine 59-2 | 2011.
Les apparences de l'homme 59-1 | 2010. Sexualites : apprentissage et performance 58-2 | 2009. Intimites et inimities du religieux et du politique en Afrique 58-1 | 2009. American Afrocentrism(e)s americains 57 | 2008. Tourisme, mobilites et alterites contemporaines 56 | 2007. Apres la catastrophe 55 | 2006. Confrontations et alliances dans les Ameriques autochtones 54 | 2006. Experiences de recherche en Republique democratique du Congo 53 | 2005. Musiques populaires 52-2 | 2005. Museums, collections, interpretations 52-1 | 2004. Transmission des savoirs et interactions culturelles 51 | 2004.
Religions transnationales 50 | 2002. Itineraires belges aux Ameriques 49 | 2002. Pain, fours et foyers des temps passes 48 | 2001. La question de l'islam et de l'Etat a l'aube du XXIe siecle 44 | 1997. Les peuples des forets tropicales 43-2 | 1996. Problemes africains contemporains 42-2 | 1993. enQuete d'identite 42-1 | 1993. Amerique latine-Europe 41 | 1993. Melanges Pierre Salmon II 40-1 | 1991. L'Asie et le Pacifique 39 | 1991.
Japon : les enjeux du futur 38-2 | 1990. Regards sur l'Iran 38-1 | 1989. ISSN electronique 2032-0442. Informations Titre : Civilisations Revue internationale d’anthropologie et de sciences humaines En bref : Revue encourageant la publication d'articles ou les approches de l'anthropologie s'articulent a celles d'autres sciences sociales.
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Complete reference citations are found at the end of lizzy the lezzy, a research project. These reference citations are longer, complete citations for all of the sources used in a project. So, full citations for all of the in-text citations are found here. The format for APA reference citations varies, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from URL. Researchers and scholars must look up the proper APA citation format for the source that they’re using. Books have a certain APA format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and olympic, so on.
Scroll down to find the proper format for the source you’re trying to cite. If you would like to cite your sources automatically, Citation Machine’s APA generator is a helpful APA reference generator that will make the advantages and disadvantages citation process easier for olympic swimming you. In-text, or parenthetical citations, are included in research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of information from another source. Quite often, researchers and scholars use a small amount of text, word for of oz the yellow road word, from olympic swimming, another source and include it in their own research projects. This is done for many reasons. Sometimes, another author’s words are so eloquently written that there isn’t a better way to rephrase it yourself.
Other times, the what author’s words can help prove a point or establish an understanding for something in your research project. When using another author’s exact words in your research project, include an olympic history in-text citation directly following it. In addition to using the exact words from another source and placing them into your project, in-text citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information. Paraphrasing is when you take information from Monster Business Essays, another source and rephrase it, in your own words. When simply referring to another piece of swimming, information from nando's home, another source, also include an in-text citation directly following it. In text APA citations are found after a direct quote, paraphrased information, or reference. They are formatted like this: Exact text, paraphrased information, or reference (Author’s Last Name, Year published, page number or paragraph number * ) * Only include the page or paragraph number when using a direct quote or paraphrase. This information is included in order to help the reader locate the exact text themselves. It is not necessary to include this information when you’re simply referring to another source. Here’s are some examples of swimming history, in-text APA citations: “Well, you’re about to what is transgenic, enter the land of the free and the brave.
And I don’t know how you got that stamp on your passport. The priest must know someone” (Toibi?n, 2009, p. 52). History? Student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent Giles, 2017). If including the author’s names in the sentence, only include the year in the in-text APA citation. According to a study done by individual differences and intelligence Kent and history, Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers. Nando's Delivery? The full references, or citations, for these sources can be found on the last part of a research project, the “Reference List.” While this guide’s intent is to help you understand and history, develop citations on your own, there are many APA formatter tools, including a free APA citation generator, available on Monster Corporation Essays Citation Machine.
Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage. Click here to learn more about crediting work. Olympic Swimming? APA Reference List Citation Components. As stated above, reference list citations are the full citations for what all of the in-text citations found in the body of a research project. Olympic Swimming History? These full citations are listed in is transgenic, alphabetical order by the author’s last names.
They have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of swimming history, text is indented in half an inch. See examples below to see what a hanging indent looks like. The format for APA reference citations varies based on beyond the yellow brick the source type, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from URL. Learn more about each component of the reference citation and how to format it in the sections that follow. The names of olympic, authors are written in reverse order. Include the is transgenic organism initials for the first and middle names. Olympic Swimming? End this information with a period. When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in advantages of democracy, the order in which they appear on olympic swimming history the source, using this format: Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. And Disadvantages Of Democracy? M., Last name, F. M. Kent, A. G., Giles, R. M. Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. J, He, Y. Olympic Swimming History? If there are 8 or more authors listed on a source, only include the first 6 authors, add three ellipses, and then add the last author’s name. Roberts, A., Johnson, M. C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. What Is Transgenic Organism? V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. K. , . Lopez, G. S. If you plan on swimming history using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator, the names of the authors will format properly for you.
Directly after the author’s name is the date the source was published. Include the full date for organism newspapers, the month and year for history magazine articles, and only the and disadvantages of democracy year for journals and all other sources. If no date is olympic swimming found on the source, include the initials, n.d. for “no date.” Narducci, M. (2017, May 19). City renames part of 11th Street Ed Snider Way to Monster Business Analysis Essays, honor Flyers founder. The Philadelphia Inquirer . History? If using our APA citation maker, Citation Machine’s APA generator will add the correct date format for advantages of democracy you automatically. When writing out titles for books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only capitalize the first word of the title and the first word of the subtitle. Names of people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized. For books and reports, italicize the title in swimming, an APA citation. Strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Personality Individual Differences And Intelligence? Hyde.
Roots: The saga of an American family. For articles and chapters in APA referencing, do not italicize the olympic swimming title. Wake up the nation: Public libraries, policy making, and nando's, political discourse. For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in each word and italicize the title. The Seattle Times. A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks. In APA, titles are never underlined or placed in quotation marks.
They are either placed in italics or not. Here’s a good general rule for APA: When a source sits alone and olympic swimming, is not part of a larger whole, place the title in italics. If the source does not sit alone and is part of a larger whole, do not place it in italics. Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone. Songs on an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in the wizard of oz the yellow brick, books, and olympic swimming history, articles in beyond the yellow road, journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of larger wholes. Citation Machine’s APA citation generator formats the title in your citations automatically by following proper APA bibliography guidelines. Additional Information about the swimming Title. If you feel as though it would be helpful to the reader to include additional information about the source type, include this information in brackets immediately following the title. What Organism? Use a brief descriptive term and capitalize the first letter.
Kennedy, K., Molen, G. R. (Producer), Spielberg, S. (Director). (1993). Jurassic Park [Motion picture]. USA: Universal. Besides [Motion picture], other common notations include: [Letter to the editor] [Television series episode] If you are using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, additional information about the title is automatically added for you. Olympic Swimming History? The APA citation generator will add this information based on the source form that you choose. Information About the Publication. For books and reports, include the city and state, or the city and country, of the publisher’s location. Instead of typing out the entire state name, use the proper two-letter abbreviation from the United States Postal Service.
Type out the entire country name when including areas outside of the United States. After typing the location, add a colon, and continue with the name of the publisher. It is not necessary to personality individual differences, include the entire name of the publisher. It is swimming acceptable to of oz beyond, use a brief, intelligible form. However, if Books or Press are part of the publisher’s names, keep these words in the citation.
Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and others can be omitted. For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the volume and issue number after the title in an APA citation. The volume number is listed first, by itself, in italics. The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., Georgas, T. (2016, May). Olympic Swimming? A study on the lezzy the role of computers in adult education. Educational Research and Reviews, 11 (9), 907-923. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2688. Olympic? If the publisher is a college or university, and the location name matches part of the school’s information, exclude the publisher information from the citation. After including the location and publisher information, end this section of the citation with a period.
London, England: Pearson. New York, NY: Perseus Books. Our APA generator is an APA reference generator that will automatically format your publication information in delivery, your citations for you. Visit Citation Machine’s homepage to learn more. For online sources, the URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at the end of a citation. DOI numbers are often created by publishers for journal articles and other periodical sources.
They were created in response to the problem of broken or outdated links and URLs. When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static, and will never change. Olympic? Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of electronic information to include in personality individual differences and intelligence, APA citations. When a DOI number is not available, include the history source’s URL. For DOIs, include the number in this format: For URLs, only include the information about the homepage and write it in this format: Retrieved from http:// Other APA referencing information about electronic sources: - If the URL is longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark. - Do not place a period at the end of the citation. - It is not necessary to include retrieval dates, unless the and disadvantages of democracy source changes often over time. - It is not necessary to include the names of databases. History? When using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, if your source was found online, the online publication information will be replaced by the DOI. Our APA citation machine will properly cite your online sources for you, automatically. Lizzy? Click here for more information about the basics of APA. APA Citation Examples for Sources.
Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Swimming? Title of work . Location: Publisher. Dickens, C. (1942). Great expectations . Advantages And Disadvantages Of Democracy? New York, NY: Dodd, Mead. Print Books with Two or More Authors. Last name, First initial., Last name, First initial, Last name, First initial. (Date). Title . Location: Publisher. Goldin, C. D., Katz, L. F. (2008). The race between education and technology . Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of swimming history, Harvard University Press. Matthews, G., Smith, Y., Knowles, G. (2009). Disaster management in archives, libraries and museums . Farnham, England: Ashgate.
When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the following format: Structure for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: Last name of chapter author, First initial. Middle initial. What? (Year published). Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book Title (pp. xx-xx). Publishing City, State: Publisher.
APA reference Example for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: De Abreu, B.S. Olympic History? (2001). The role of media literacy education within social networking and the library. In D.E. Agosto J. Abbas (Eds.), Teens, libraries, and social networking (pp. 39-48). Is Transgenic Organism? Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. APA reference Structure for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Last name of chapter author, First initial. (Year published). Chapter title. In First initial.
Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book title [E-reader version, if used] (pp. History? xx-xx). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Life? Example for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Lobo, R. F. (2003). Introduction to the structural chemistry of zeolites. Olympic? In S. Auerbach, K. Carrado, P. Dutta (Eds.), Handbook of zeolite science and technology (pp. 65-89). Retrieved from what, https://books.google.com. If you’re still unsure about how to cite a chapter in a book, use Citation Machine’s APA formatter. Your citations will automatically format properly when using the swimming generator. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Personality Individual Differences? Title of work [E-reader Version]. Olympic Swimming History? http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Auster, P. (2007).
The Brooklyn follies [Nook version]. Retrieved from http://www.barnesandnoble.com/ Only the what is transgenic organism first letter of the first word and any proper nouns in the title should be capitalized in an APA citation. A DOI (digital object identifier) is swimming basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, it’s very important to include it in your APA referencing citation. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work . http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Baloh, P., Burke, M. E. Advantages? (2007). Attaining organizational innovations. To cite your e-books automatically, use the “Book” form on Citation Machine’s APA generator, click on “Manual entry mode,” and click the “E-book” tab. Our APA citation maker will format your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines. Author Last name, F. Olympic Swimming? I. (Year Published).
Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Gleditsch, N. Advantages And Disadvantages? P., Pinker, S., Thayer, B. A., Levy, J. S., Thompson, W. History? R. (2013). The forum: The decline of war. International Studies Review , 15 (3), 396-419. If your source is found online, but there is no DOI provided, you can include the advantages of democracy URL instead. Olympic History? A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on personality individual differences the Internet. Olympic? This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, you should include it in your citation rather than including a URL. Advantages And Disadvantages? Unlike previous editions of olympic swimming history, APA, the 6th edition does not require including a retrieval date or date accessed for online sources. A retrieval date is Bevrage Analysis only necessary if the source is likely to change (ex. Wikipedia).
Instead, ‘Retrieved from’ is used. Author Last name, F. Olympic Swimming? I. (Year Published). Is Transgenic? Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Olympic? Sahin, N. T., Pinker, S., Cash, S. S., Schomer, D., Halgren, E. (2009). Sequential processing of nando's home delivery, lexical, grammatical, and olympic swimming, phonological information within Broca’s area. Science, 326 (5951), 445-449. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx. If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator is an what is transgenic organism APA citation maker that will cite your sources automatically for you. Page numbers: If article is only one page long, use ‘p.’ For any article longer than one page, use ‘pp.’ If an article appears is on non-sequential pages, separate each page number with a comma.
Example: pp. D4, D5, D7-D8 APA referencing does NOT require you to include the date of access for electronic sources. Author, F. I. (Year, Month Day Published). Title of swimming history, article. Title of Newspaper , page range.
Frost, L. (2006, September 14). First passengers ride monster jet. The Salt Lake Tribune , A2. You may be wondering what to do if you find your newspaper article on a database. Author, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Real Life? Title of article . Title of Newspaper. Olympic? Retrieved from newspaper homepage URL. Whiteside, K. (2004, August 31). College athletes want cut of action. USA Today . Retrieved http://www.usatoday.com. What Organism? Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Published).
Title of article. Title of Magazine, Volume (Issue), page range. Quammen, D. (2008, December). History? The man who wasn’t Darwin. National Geographic Magazine, 214 (6), 106. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Article title. Retrieved from URL. Example of an APA format website: Austerlitz, S. (2015, March 3). How long can a spinoff like ‘Better Call Saul’ last?
Retrieved from http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how-long-can-a-spinoff-like-better-call-saul-last/ Last name, First initial. (Year, Month, Date of what organism, blog post). Title of olympic swimming, blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL of blog post. McClintock Miller, S. (2014, January 28). EasyBib joins the Rainbow Loom project as we dive into research with the third graders [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com. On our APA citation machine form for blogs, you have the option to choose from standard, audio, and video blogs. Citation Machine’s APA generator will automatically cite your blog sources for you. Writer Last Name, F. I. (Writer), Director Last Name, F. I. Monster Bevrage Corporation Business Analysis Essays? (Director). Olympic Swimming History? (Year aired).
Title of episode [Television or Radio series episode]. In Producer Last Name, F. The Yellow Road? I. (Executive producer), TV or Radio series name . City, State of original channel: Channel. Lin, K. (Writer), Coles, J. D. (Director). Swimming? (2014). Chapter 18 [Television series episode]. In Bays, C. (Executive producer), House of cards . Washington, D.C.: Netflix. If using Citation Machine’s APA generator,television and radio broadcasts use the same form. Producer Last Name, F. I. (Producer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year Released).
Title of film [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio. Bender, L. (Producer), Tarantino, Q. (Director). Nando's Home? (1994). Olympic Swimming? Pulp fiction [Motion Picture]. United States: Miramax. There is the option to automatically cite films found online, in film, and on a database when using Citation Machine’s APA citation builder. It is highly recommended not to use personal (unpublished) interviews in your reference list. Instead, this type of source should be formatted as an in-text or parenthetical citation. Organism? However, here is an example of an in-text citation for a personal interview in APA: Structure: (Interviewee F .I., Last Name, personal communication, Date Interviewed) Example: (D.
Halsey, personal communication, December 12, 2011) Published Interviews should be cited accordingly if they appear as journal articles, newspaper articles, television programs, radio programs, or films. Swimming History? If your instructor requires a citation in the reference list, use the following structure: Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Interviewed). Interview type [email, phone, personal interview, personal interview with [third party FI Last Name]. Halsey, D. (2011, December 12). Personal Interview.
If you are planning on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, a note is displayed above the form stating that personal interviews are not typically cited in organism, text. Our APA format generator creates in-text citations and swimming history, full reference citations for you. Songs Musical Recordings found Online. *Note: If the name of the songwriter is the same as the lizzy life name of the recording artist, leave out the bracketed information located after the name of the song. Last name, First initial. Middle initial. of songwriter. (Year created). Song title [Recorded by First initial. Middle initial.
Last name of the performer’s name or the olympic history name of the band]. On Album Title [Medium]. Retrieved from URL. Hedfors, A., Ingrosso, S., Angello, S. (2012). Greyhound [Recorded by Swedish House Mafia]. On Until Now [Audio file]. What? Retrieved from https://open.spotify.com/track/0VffaI2jwQknRrxpECYHsF. If using our APA citation machine, choose the olympic swimming history form titled, “Music/Audio,” to automatically cite your songs and musical recordings. Our APA citation maker is an APA format generator that is free and easy to home delivery, use.
Doctoral Dissertations found on a Database: Last name, First initial. Olympic Swimming History? Middle initial. (Year published). Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis). Retrieved from Name of database. Home? (Accession or Order No. xxxxxxx). English, L. S. (2014). The influences of community college library characteristics on institutional graduation rates: A national study (Doctoral dissertation). Olympic? Retrieved from American Doctoral Dissertations. Home Delivery? (37CDD15DF659E63F). On our APA citation machine, there is olympic history a form for dissertations that will cite this source type for the wizard beyond brick road you. Last name, First initial. (Producer). Swimming? (Year, Month Day). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from what, URL.
Goodwin, G. (Producer). (2016, February 11). History extra [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.historyextra.com/podcasts. If using Citation Machine’s APA format generator, choose the “Blog/Podcast,” form to cite your podcasts automatically. Last name, First initial. [YouTube username]. (Year, Month, Day of posting). Title of YouTube video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL. Damien, M. [Marcelo Damien]. (2014, April 10).
Tiesto @ Ultra Buenos Aires 2014 (full set) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/mr4TDnR0ScM. If using our APA citation machine, choose the olympic swimming history form titled, “Film” to automatically cite your YouTube videos. Looking for a source type that is not on this guide? Here is another useful link to follow. Brick Road? An APA annotated bibliography is a bibliography that includes the full reference citations in addition to a small paragraph containing your evaluation about each source. When creating your citations, there is a field at olympic swimming history, the bottom of each form to add your own annotations. Looking to create an APA format title page? Head to Citation Machine’s homepage and choose “Title Page” at the top of the screen. A written work or composition found in print, or digitally as an e-book.
Can be non-fiction or fiction. A popular work published periodically (weekly, monthly etc.) focusing on a specific interest or subject. A periodical publication containing current events, news, interviews and opinion articles. A collection of pages that provides information about a certain topic. A scholarly work published periodically, containing highly specified research. A motion picture or movie. Can be a fictional movie, documentary or even YouTube videos. Copyright © 2000 - 2017 by Citation Machine™, a Chegg Service. Citation Machine™ uses the 7th ed. of MLA, 6th ed. of APA, and 16th ed. of Chicago (8th ed.
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A History Of Women In Olympic Swimming - FloSwimming
Cours et exercices MERISE [Résolu/Fermé] Prepare par : Ahmed OULD TEBAKH, ing. Consultant en informatique. 05 decembre 2006. On considere une relation R construite sur les attributs Proprietaire, Occupant, Adresse, Noapt, Nbpieces, Nbpersonnes, un nuplet (p, o, a, n, nb1, nb2) ayant la signification suivante : la personne o habite avec nb2 personnes l'appartement de numero n ayant nb1 pieces dont le proprietaire est p. Une analyse de cette relation nous fournit un ensemble initial E de dependances fonctionnelles : adresse, noapt -- proprietaire. adresse, noapt -- occupant. adresse, noapt -- nbpieces. 1- Donner l'ensemble des dependances fonctionnelles elementaires engendrees par E.
2- Quelles sont les cles potentielles de R ? 3- R est elle en 3eme forme normale ? On considere le schema relationnel R defini sur les attributs suivants : un nuplet (c, p, h, s, e, n) a pour signification que le cours c est fait par le professeur p a l'heure h dans la salle s par l'etudiant e qui a recu la note n. L'ensemble E des dependances fonctionnelles initiales est le suivant : 1- Donner l'ensemble des dependances fonctionnelles elementaires engendrees par E. 2- Quelle est la cle de la relation R ? Montrer qu'elle est unique. 3- Quelle est la forme normale de la relation R ? Si elle n'est pas en 3FN proposer une decomposition en 3FN. On considere les deux relations suivantes ou les cles sont en caracteres gras : * LESFILMS(TITRE, PAYS, ANNEE, REALISATEUR, DUREE) et ou les attributs ont les significations et les types suivants: -TITRE : titre d'un film (chaine 50 caracteres) -PAYS : pays d'ou un film est originaire (chaine 10 caracteres) -ANNEE : annee de sortie du film (entier 4 chiffres) -REALISATEUR: Nom du realisateur du film (chaine 20 caracteres) - DUREE : duree du film en mn (entier 3 chiffres) -ACTEUR : Nom d'acteur (chaine 20 caracteres) La relation LESFILMS donne pour chaque film identifie par son titre, le pays , l'annee de sortie, realisateur et la duree. La relation LESACTEURS donne pour chaque film l'ensemble des principaux acteurs. A l'aide de l'algebre relationnelle exprimer les requetes suivantes:
Q1: Liste des films francais (titre, annee, realisateur). Q2: Donnez les annees de sortie des films tournes par GABIN. 1- soient les tables suivantes. Artiste(Num art Nom, prenom , date_nais) ?uvre (Num ov, titre) Produire( #Num_art #Num ov) 1. Olympic Swimming History. schematiser le model conceptuel des donnees. 2- faire les requetes suivantes. a-compter le nombre d'artistes ? b- selectionner les noms des artistes qui commence par la lettre i ? c- compter le nombre d'?uvre ? d- selectionner les numeros des artistes qui commence par la lettre i ? e- selectionner les numeros des artistes qui sont produire l'?uvre numero 3 ? f- donner la liste des numeros des artistes qui ont pas produire. Dans le domaine curriculum vitae, on Bevrage Corporation Analysis dispose des informations ci-apres : 1- nom et prenom de l'individu.
2- date de naissance de l'individu. 3- langues pratiquees par l'individu. 4- designation du diplome. 5- designation des centres d'interet (sport, musique ) a- schematiser le model conceptuel des donnees ? b- donner le model relationnel des donnees ? Pour les etudiants de ISET on olympic history utilise une base des donnees pour gerer les resultats de fin d’annee. Analysis Essays. Cette base est composee des relations suivantes : Matiere ( codemat , coefjp ,coef_ecrit, coef_mat ) Etudiant ( numinsc ,nom ,prenom ,date_nais ?tel ) Evaluation ( # code_mat, # num insc , note_exam) 1. Olympic Swimming. schematiser le model conceptuel des donnees ? 2. Essays. refaire le model relationnel des donnees ? 3. Swimming. creer les tables en mode de creation ? 4. What Is Transgenic. remplissez les tables par des informations arbitraires ? 5. Olympic Swimming. compter le nombre des etudiants qui sont inscrit ? 6. What. quel est le nombre des matieres ? 7. History. quel est le nombre des etudiants ayant une note d'examen superieur ou. 8. Personality Differences. quels sont les etudiants qui n'ont pas la moyenne dans l'examen ? 9. Olympic. selectionner les etudiants qui sont passer l'examen ? 10. The Lezzy. donner les noms ,les prenoms des etudiants qui ont la moyenne dans. 11. Olympic History. les matieres qui ne sont pas evaluer ? 12. Of Oz The Yellow. selectionner le code du matiere ,sa coefficient de TP, sa coeff. History. d'ecrit ? 13. Business Essays. refaire question 12 en selectionnant aussi le note de l'examen ? Schema 1 - MODELE CONCEPTUEL DES DONNEES.
2. Olympic Swimming History. A partir de ce que l'on comprend du 1er schema, presentez un MCD corrige. 3. Home. Deduisez de votre MCD un Modele Logique des Donnees normalise (toutes les relations en 3FN) ARTICLE (ref_art, lib_art, pu_art) RELEVE (date_vte, ref_art, no_vendeur, qte) CCIAL (no_vendeur, nom, prenom, ville) SECTEUR (code_secteur, ville_sect, no_vendeur) 1. Olympic. Ajouter les contraintes d'integrite d'entite : - Verifier les cles primaires (doivent etre uniques et non nulles) 2. Lizzy Real Life. Ajouter les contraintes d'integrite de domaine : (Voir les rubriques Taille du champ, Masque de saisie, Valide si en utilisant l'aide contextuelle F1) - Le prix unitaire des articles ne peut pas etre inferieur ou egal a zero. - Le nom des commerciaux doit etre au maximum de 25 lettres majuscules, espaces autorises. 3. Olympic History. Ajouter les contraintes d'integrite de reference. 4. Monster Corporation Analysis Essays. Creer la table SECTEUR.
5. Olympic History. Ecrire les requetes permettant d'obtenir les informations suivantes : 1. Corporation Business Analysis Essays. Afficher les articles dont le prix est superieur a 500. 2. Olympic History. Afficher tous les articles dont le prix est compris entre 200 et 500 avec tri decroissant sur prix. 3. Lizzy The Lezzy Life. Afficher les articles avec le prix converti en dollars (hyp. Swimming. : 1 dollar = 1,07 ) 4. The Lezzy Real. Afficher les articles dont le libelle contient le mot clavier ou Clavier 5. Swimming History. Afficher le nombre d'articles disponibles. 6. And Disadvantages Of Democracy. Afficher le prix de l'article le plus cher, le moins cher et le prix moyen. 7. Olympic Swimming History. Afficher les ref et lib des articles ayant ete vendus au moins une fois. 8. Nando's Delivery. Afficher le montant total des ventes realisees par Gates. 9. Olympic Swimming History. Afficher la ref et le libelle des articles vendus en mars 2002, tries par libelle.
10. The Lezzy. Afficher pour chaque date, le montant total des ventes journalieres, trie par CA decroissant. 11. Olympic Swimming. Dates ou il y a eu au moins une vente (sans doublons) 12.
Liste (libelle) des articles qui ont ete vendus au moins une fois (sans doublons) 13. And Disadvantages Of Democracy. Nombre d'articles differents ayant ete vendus (chaque ref trouvee compte pour 1) 14. Olympic Swimming History. Libelle des articles tries par prix decroissant (uniquement ceux dont la ref. Personality And Intelligence. est superieure a 1040, en excluant ceux dont le prix est superieur a 1000 ) 15. Swimming History. Articles dont le nom contient « disquette » ainsi que ceux dont le prix est superieur a 20K. 16. Advantages And Disadvantages. Articles dont le prix est compris entre 10K et 15K , tries par prix decroissant. 17. Swimming. Ref. Monster Analysis Essays. des articles et quantite totale vendue de chaque article. 18.
Pour chaque date, quantite moyenne journaliere d’articles vendus. 19. Olympic Swimming History. Nom des vendeurs ayant vendu quelque chose le 13/01/2002. 20. Bevrage Analysis. Afficher pour chaque nom de vendeur, le CA total realise en janvier 2002. 21. Olympic Swimming History. Libelle et prix des articles moins chers que la « pince a listing » (vous n’etes bien sur pas cense connaitre le prix de la pince) 22. Personality Individual Differences. Libelle et quantite vendue de l’article qui detient le record de ventes journalieres. 23.
Liste des vendeurs habitant dans la meme ville que le vendeur n°13. 24. Swimming. Ref. Home Delivery. et libelle des articles pour lesquels il n’y a pas eu de vente. Exercice 1 : soit le model conceptuel suivant. 2. Olympic History. les associations entre les entites ? 3. And Disadvantages Of Democracy. quels sont les types de ces associations ? 4. Olympic Swimming History. selectionner les codes, noms, prenoms des auteurs? 5. Individual Differences And Intelligence. selectionner les codes, noms, prenoms, tel des auteurs ? 6. Olympic. selectionner les codes, noms, prenoms, dates des naissances des auteurs qui realisons. 7. Of Oz Beyond The Yellow Brick Road. selectionner les code, noms, prenoms , dates des naissances des auteurs qui realisons. des exercices qui possede des difficultes ? 8. Olympic Swimming. donner les codes d'exercices et sont types et ces nombres qui possede des difficultes ? 9. What Is Transgenic. donner les types des difficultes et ces libelles estimer ? 10. Olympic Swimming. donner le code d'exercice et son type et sa difficulte qui lui possede ? Exercice 1 : soit le model conceptuel suivant. 2. Corporation. les associations entre les entites ? 3. Olympic Swimming. deduire le MRD ? 4. And Disadvantages. selectionner les numeros des licences des joueurs, noms ? 5. Swimming. selectionner les numeros des licences des joueurs qui sont fait le match numero 2 ? 6. Nando's Delivery. selectionner les numeros des licences des joueurs qui sont fait le match numero 1 ? 7. Swimming. refaire question 6 en affichant le temps ? 8. Is Transgenic Organism. selectionner les numeros des licences des joueurs, noms, prenoms et ces equipes ? 9. Olympic Swimming History. les equipes qui sont joue des matches ? 10. Of Oz Brick Road. selectionner les numeros des licences des joueurs, noms, prenom, l'action qu'ils.
11. Swimming History. selectionner les numeros des licence des joueurs, noms, prenom, l'action qu'ils faisant. et dans quelle match ? Epargnant (n°epargnant ,nom,prenom) Ce Schema correspond aux places financieres ou sont cotes les titres (action ,obligations, ..)de l’entreprise. Ces titres sont detenus par des epargnants. Is Transgenic Organism. Un epargnant peut detenir plusieurs portefeuilles de titres qui peuvent etre geres par divers societes d’intermediation. A – Creer la base de donnees Compte en respectant le MLD ci-dessus. B – Ecrire les requetes SQL suivantes : 1. Olympic Swimming. La liste des epargnants qui possedent le titre WAFABANK. 2. What Is Transgenic. Les titres cotes a la fois a la place de casablanca et au caire.
3. Olympic. Calcul des valeurs des titres detenus par Mr SUBHI. 4. What. Les titres qui ont progresse de plus de 20% depuis leur introduction en bourse. 5. Olympic Swimming History. Suppression des titres du portefeuille n°15 du monsieur hassani. 6. Lizzy The Lezzy Real Life. Les actionnaires detenant l’action BMCE et BCM. 7. Swimming. Les epargnants qui n’ont plus de portefeuille de titre. 8. Organism. Les societes d’intermediation qui ne gerent plus de portefeuilles contenant le titre ONA. Prepare par : Ahmed OULD TEBAKH, ing. Consultant en informatique. 05 decembre 2006. Mots-clef : Merise.
MCD. History. entite, association, MLD. Personality Differences. relation, traduction, MPD. 1 Modele conceptuel de donnees (MCD) 2. 11 Sc hema (mtite-assoriatioi) 2. 1.2 Cas particuliers 4. 13 Roules de normalisation 6. 14 Methodlogie 7. 2 Modele logique de donnees (MLD) 7. 2.1 Systemes logiques 7. 2.2 Scliema relationnel 8. 2.3 Traduction 8.
3 Modele physique de donnees (MPD) 12 4 Retro-conception 12. 5 Compleme nts 13. 5.1 Agregation 13. 5.2 Identifiant relatif 14. 5.3 Sous entite .. Olympic History. . Monster Bevrage Business. .. Olympic History. 16. 5.-3 Sous-associat ion .. The Wizard Of Oz Beyond The Yellow Brick. . Swimming History. 17.
2 MODELE LOGIQUE DE DONNEES (MLD) 8. 2.2 Schema relationnel. Concentrons-nous sur le MLDR. Home Delivery. Lorsque des donnees ont la meme structure (comme par exemple, les bordereaux de livraison), on swimming peut les organiser en table dans laquelle les colonnes decrivent les champs en commun et les lignes contiennent les valeurs de ces champs pour chaque enregistrement. Les lignes d'une table doivent etre uniques, cela signifie qu'une colonne (au moins) doit servir de cle primaire. Monster Analysis Essays. La cle primaire d'une ligne ne doit pas changer au cours du temps et ne peut contenir la valeur NULL, alors que les autres colonnes le peuvent. Par ailleurs, il se peut qu'une colonne Colonnel d'une table ne doive contenir que des valeurs prises par une colonne Colonne2 d'une autre table (par exemple, le numero du client sur une commande doit correspondre a un vrai numero de client). Swimming. La Colonne2 doit etre sans doublons (bien souvent il s'agit d'une cle primaire) et on delivery dit que la Colonnel est cle etrangere.
Par convention, on history souligne les cles primaires et on Monster Corporation Business Essays fait preceder les cles etrangeres d'un diese # dans la description des colonnes d'une table : clients(numero client, nom client, prenom, adresse client, . Olympic Swimming History. ) commandes(numero commande, date, #numero client, . Delivery. ) - une meme table peut avoir plusieurs cles etrangeres mais une seule cle primaire (eventuellement. composees de plusieurs colonnes) ; - une cle etrangere peut aussi etre primaire; une cle etrangere peut etre composee (c'est le cas si la cle primaire en liaison est composee). Swimming History. La section suivante contient des exemples. On peut represente]- les tables d'une base de donnees relationnelle par un schema relationnel dans lequel les tables sont appelees relations et les liens entre les cles etrangeres et leur cle primaire est symbolise par un connecteur : Pour traduire un MOD en troisieme forme normale en un MLDR. Nando's Home Delivery. il suffit d'appliquer cinq regles (a connaitre par coeur). Olympic Swimming. Mais avant, on is transgenic organism dit qu'une association entre deux entites (eventuellement reflexive) est de type : - 1 : 1 si les deux cardinalites sont 0,1 ou 1,1 ; - 1 : n si une des deux cardinalite est 0,n ou l.n; - n : m (plusieurs a plusieurs) si les deux cardinalites sont 0,n ou l,n. En fait, un schema relationnel ne peut faire la difference entre 0,n et l,n. Olympic. Par contre, il peut la faire outre 0.1 et 1,1 (cf. What. regles 2 et 3). Regle 1 : toute entite devient une table dans laquelle les attributs deviennent des colonnes. Olympic Swimming. L'identifiant de l'entite constitue alors la cle primaire de la table. Par exemple, l'entite articles de la figure 9 devient la table : articles(numero article, nom article, prix unitaire de vente, . Monster Bevrage Corporation Business Analysis Essays. ) Regle 2 : dans le cas de deux entites reliees par une association de type 1 : n, on olympic history ajoute une cle etrangere dans la table cote 0.1 ou 1,1, vers la cle primaire de la table cote 0,n ou l,n. The Wizard Of Oz. Les attributs de l'association glissent vers la table cote 0,1 ou 1,1.
Et si la cardinalite est 1,1 alors la cle etrangere ne peut recevoir la valeur NULL (autrement dit, vide interdit). Par exemple, l'association livrer de la figure 9 est traduite par : fournisseurs(numero fournisseur, nom fournisseur, telephone, . Swimming. ) livraisons(numero livraison, date, #numero fournisseur (non vide), nom livreur) ajoute une contrainte d'unicite sur chaque de ces cles etrangeres la colonne correspondante ne peut. prendre que des valeurs distincte- Les attributs de l'association sont alors repartis vers l'une des deux tables. Is Transgenic Organism. Et si la cardinalite est 1.1 alors la cle etrangere concernee ne peut recevoir la valeur NULL (autre¬ment dit, vide. Par exemple. Swimming History. l'association resider de la figure 8 est traduite p. etres humains(numero personnel, nom, prenom, #numero appartement (unique), date d'entree, . Monster Bevrage Essays. ) logement(numero appartement, adresse, #numero personnel (unique), montant du loyer, . Swimming. ) En fait, la regle 3 considere que le type 1 : 1 correspond a deux type 1 : n symetriques. Brick. Autre technique : ajouter une table intermediaire dont la cle primaire est composee de cles etrangeres vers les cles primaires des tables en association et une contrainte d'unicite sur ces cles etrangeres (c'est-a-dire considerer le type ] : 1 comme un cas particulier du type n : m) : etres humains(numero personnel, nom, prenom, . Olympic History. ) logement(numero appartement, adresse, . Home Delivery. ) resider(#numero personnel (unique), #numero appartement (unique), date d'entree, montant du loyer) 2 MODELE LOGIQ UE DE DONNEES (MLD) 11. Par exemple, l'association concerner (1) de la figure 9 est traduite par : articles(numero article, nom article, prix unitaire de vente, . Olympic Swimming History. ) lignes de commande (tournero commande, #numero article, quantite commandee) commandes(numero commande, date, . Monster Analysis Essays. ) exemple, l'association vols de la figure 7 devient la table : . Olympic Swimming History. s(#numero avion, toumero pilote, toumero aeroport, date et heure, duree, distance)
3 Modele physique de donnees (MPD) Bien que certains outils (PowerAMC notamment) considere que le MPD et le MLD representent la meme chose, c'est faux. Bevrage Corporation Business. Le MPD est une implementation particuliere du MLD pour un materiel, un environnement et un logiciel donne. Notamment, le MPD s'interesse au stockage des donnees a travers le type et la taille (en octets ou en bits) des attributs du MCD. Olympic Swimming. Cela permet, de prevoir la place necessaire a chaque table dans le cas d'un SGBDR. Le MPD tient compte des limites materielles et logicielles afin d'optimiser l'espace consomme et d'optimiser le temps de calcul (qui representent deux optimisations contradictoires). Lizzy Real. Dans le cas d'un SGBDR, le MPD definit les index et peut etre amene a accepter certaines redondances d'information afin d'accelerer les requetes. Par exemple, la table commandes de la figure 14 peut etre supprimees et ses colonnes, notamment date, sont ajoutees a la table lignes de commandes. Swimming. On renonce donc a la troisieme forme normale.
Une application pratique de la separation entre le MLDR et le MPD est le portage d'une base de nees d'un SGBD a un autre. Individual And Intelligence. Par exemple, on history peut traduire un MPD Access on the wizard beyond un MLDR puis traduire MLDR en un MPD Oracle. Dans la majorite des cas, le travail du concepteur de bases de donnees consiste non pas a creer une. mais plutot a corriger ou etendre une base existante. Olympic Swimming. Dans ce cas, la donnee est un modele lethode consiste a. Home. le traduire en un modele conceptuel, modifier ce modele et regenerer le modele physique modifie.
Il s'agit de retro-conception ou reverse engineering. bases de donnees relationnelles, il suffit de traduire le modele physique en un MLDR, puis d'appiquer les regles de traduction du paragraphe 2.3 dans le sens inverse. Regle 1 les tables dont la cle primaire est non composee (et non cle etrangere) deviennent des. entites ( les colonnes - non cles etrangeres deviennent dos attributs et la cle primaire devient identifiant). Regle 2 : les tables dont la cle primaire est composee (exclusivement) de cles etrangeres deviennent. des associations n-aires, ou n est le nombre de colonne definissant la cle primaire (les autres colonnes non.
cles etrangeres de viennent attributs). Regle 3 : les colonnes cles etrangeres restantes deviennent des associations binaires de type 1 : n (il reste a re-inventer leur nom). Regle 4 : les cardinalites minimales sont 1 si figure la. Olympic History. mention (non vide) et a retrouver par le bon sens sinon (0 par defaut). Monster Business. Les cardinalites maximales sont 1 ou n selon que la mention (unique) figure ou non. Les extensions presentees dans cette section font partie de la version 2 de Merise (cf. Olympic. [ ]).
Elles. permettent de traiter certaines situations reelles plus simplement. Exemple : dans un entreprise dont les representants vendent des produits dans differentes regions, une des regles de gestion est qu'un produit pour une region donnee, ne peut etre vendu que par un seul representant. Si on and disadvantages se contente du schema de la figure 17, alors cette regle n'est pas forcement respectee. Olympic Swimming History. Il faut. L'agregation constitue alors une entite dont l'identifiant est compose des identifiants de ses propres. representants(numero representant, nom representant, . Nando's Home Delivery. ) regions(numero region, nom region, . Olympic. ) produits(numero produit, nom produit, . Advantages Of Democracy. ) couvrir(#numero region, ftnumero produit. Olympic Swimming. #numero representant (non vide), date et heure) type n : m (cf. Nando's Home Delivery. figure 19). Olympic Swimming History. alors le schema relationnel ferait intervenir une table supplementaire. representants(numero representant, nom representant, . The Wizard Beyond The Yellow Brick. ) regions(numero region, nom region, . Olympic Swimming History. ) produits(numero produit, nom produit, . Nando's Home. ) couvrir(numero region. Olympic. #numero produit) vendre(##numero region. Delivery. ##numero produit, #numero representant, date et heure) une eut: du batiment numerote les factures relatives a un chantier par le numero du. -uivi d'un numero automatique. Olympic History. Les factures du chantier 14 sont 1401, 1402 et 1403 tandis que . Nando's. chantier 15 sont 1501 et 1502.
Exemple : les factures d'une entreprise font l'objet d'un reglement par cheque ou par carte. History. Cette entreprise souhaite connaitre pour tous les reglements, leur date, pour les reglements par cheque, le nom de la banque et le numero du cheque et pour les reglements par carte, le numero de la carte, le nom de la banque et la date d'expiration. On a donc une entite generique reglements et deux entites specialisees cheques et cartes. Home. Ces deux sous-entites de l'entite reglements ont des attributs propres mais pas d'identifiants propres. Sur le schema entite-association, on olympic represente le lien qui unie une sous-entite a son entite generique par une fleche (cf. The Wizard Of Oz Beyond The Yellow Brick Road. figure 22 ).
La traduction des sous-entites au niveau logique relationnel fait intervenir une cle primaire commune ussi etrangere : reglements(numero reglement, date, nom banque) cheques(#numero reglement, numero cheque) cartes(#numero reglement, numero carte, date expiration) Remarque au niveau logique objet, on history retrouve la notion d'heritage. Exemple : une entreprise artisanale vend non seulement des produits a prix unitaire fixe, mais aussi des produits sur mesure dont le prix unitaire est calcule a partir de la duree de confection et d'un taux horaire. Dans ce cas. The Wizard Beyond Road. non seulement l'entite produits est specialisee en produits standards et produits personnalises, mais en plus, l'association concerner entre les entites commandes et produits est specialisee selon qu'il s'agit d'un produit standard ou personnalise (cf. History. figure 23 ). On a alors les sov s-associations concerner standard et concerner personnalise dont le lien avec l'association generique concerner est represente par une fleche. Dans le schema relationnel, les sous-associations sont traduites de la meme maniere que l'association generique correspondante, mais avec leurs attributs propres : produits(numero produit, nom produit, . And Disadvantages Of Democracy. ) produits standards(#(l)numero produit, prix unitaire) produits personnalises(#(2)numero produit, taux horaire) coccndes(numero commande, date, . Swimming. . Nando's. . Olympic Swimming. ) concerner(#numero commande, #numero produit, quantite) concerner standard(##numero commande, 3#(l)numero produit) concerner personnalise(##numero corjr.ar.de. Corporation Analysis Essays. ##(2)numero produit, duree)
Interets de la decomposition MCD/MLD/MPD : - le MOD permet d'eviter certaines erreurs de conception (en contradiction avec les regles de norma¬ le MCD permet de voir facilement quelles associations de type n : m, non binaires ou reflexives sont en presence (c'est important) ; - le MLD peut etre obtenu automatiquement par des outils de genie logiciel ; - le MCD peut etre traduit en differents MLD coherents (notamment on olympic history peut traduire un MCD en. un MLDR puis en une base de donnees Access tandis qu'en parallele le MCD est traduit en un. ensemble de classes Java (MPD oriente objet) afin de developper une application web sur cette base. Cependant, la methodologie Merise est typiquement francaise. Monster Business Analysis Essays. En Grande-Bretagne, la methodologie standard s'appelle SSADM (Structured Systems Analysis ans Design Method) et repose sur les memes principes. Olympic History. Les nord-americains utilisent ce qu'on appelle des diagrammes de flux dont les principes sont repris par la version 2 de Merise. Aujourd'hui, ce sont les methodologies objets et leur unification UML (Unified Modeling Language, autrement dit langage unifie de modelisation objet) qui tendent a remplacer Merise et ses extensions objets. Bevrage Business Analysis. Le lecteur est donc invite a se documenter sur le cadre UML pour etre a la pointe de l'etat de l'art en methodologie de conception. Table des figures.
2 Associations 2. 1 Identifiants 3. 5 Cardinaiites 4. (i Association reflexive 4. 7 Association ternaire 5. 8 Associations plurielles 5. 9 Normalisation des relations G. 10 Schema relationnel 8. 11 Traduction d'une association de type 1 : n 9. !) Traduction d'une association de type 1:1 10.
13 Traduction alternative d'une association de type 1:1 10. M Traduction d'une association de type n : m 11. 15 Traduction d'une association ternaire 11. 16 Sacrifice de la troisieme forme normale 12. 17 Mauvais MCD 13. 18 Solution avec- agregation 14. 19 Agregation avec une association de type n : m 15. 20 Identifiant par concatenation 15. 21 Representation d'un identifiant relatif 16.
22 Representat ion des sous-entites 16. 23 Representation des sou^-associa?ions 17. mon email est : firstname.lastname@example.org. Pour les reponses aux questions sur MERISE : il y a aussi l'excellente F.A.Q MERISE : http://uml.developpez.com/faq/merise/ je veux savoir est ce que le nombre des flux du MCC doivent etre egaux aux nombres d'operations du MCT? et merci d'avance. pour les ex de merise pour debutant je vous propose ce site: j'espere que je trouve celui qui va m'aider sachant j'ai un examen sur les systemes d'information dans 5 jours. 1/ Construire le MCD a partir des informartions recoltees aupres des utilisateurs et determiner ainsi les entites en jeux, les associations, les cardinalites ie les regles de gestions, les proprietes. 2/ Construire le MCT = cad traduire les consequences d unevenement precis sur le SI. Je comprend ce qu est le MCT . Olympic History. Ce que je ne comprend c est a quel moment il intervient dans la realisation de mon SI automatise . What Is Transgenic Organism. Je sais que le MCD se traduit facilement en MLd mais que vient faire le MCT dasn tt ca? 3/ Le MOT = comment se determine t il et meme question sur son action dans la realisation du SI. le mct va definire la circulation des docs etudies par expl l'evenemant declancheur c'est le depot d'un dossier (pour inscription) op: verification du dossier.
etat(resultat de l'op): dossier accepter ou dossier rejeter. pour le mot vous allez en + vous allez etre obliger de definir le type de l'op (manuel, automatique ou semiautomatique) c'est tous que je me rappel pour l'instant. je suis un etudiant en systeme d'information j'ai besoin queleque. donne sur l'analyse merise. Si c'est possible je veux quelques exercices sur MLT (guidage fonctionnel, NNI, dialogue) et la quantification des MOD de la methode merise version 2. le site que vous cherchez est le suivant:www.enitab.fr/resource_pedago/support_cours/merise. je le trouve tres interressant. si vous voulez je cherche un site riche en UML. Min ketata hajer. si c'est possible, je veux quelques exercices sur MLT(guidage fonctionnel, NNI, dialogue) et sur la quantification des MOD de la methode MERISE 2. je vous serai reconnaissant si vous me repondez. prendre comme le cas d'un debutant.
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Free Essays on Importance Of Battle Buddy System. Battle Buddy - the idea behind having a battle buddy comes from the guidance of the old Aristotelian adage “the whole is greater than the sum of its parts”, and has been used in olympic swimming, the military for decades. Shield bearer is of oz brick road, another term used in ancient Gaul which means something different a soldier carrying. ?Do to the fact that I could not maintain punctuality in a classroom environment I shall be writing an essay of the importance of punctuality in the United States Military. Now of olympic swimming course it seems like this would be easy to understand however I had managed to forget it and this shall explain it in this. Importance of Signing Out with Cq.
The Importance of Signing Out with CQ SPC Vereen The importance of signing out with CQ is a simple task but yet most would find this task annoying. Of Oz Beyond The Yellow Brick Road. A prime example would be myself, as I normally do not sign out in history, the “CQ sign-out log.” My reason for this was at one point that I would never leave. Importance of Lubricating Your Weapon. The Importance of Lubricating a Weapon A soldier’s lifeline in a combat environment is his weapon. Without his weapon he is unable to complete a mission or protect his battle buddies and/or others in what is transgenic, the way of harm. He is, in a way, unfit for battle if he does not have a properly functional weapon.
Battle: Military and Decrease Positive Effects. The battle buddy system teaches Soldiers how to work together as a team and how to look out for fellow Soldiers at all times They're always together and olympic swimming, that allows them to never feel like they're alone, The idea is to let Soldiers feel like someone's always got their back. Battle buddies help. frustration can bring in advantages, helplessness which in turn leads to suicides and fratricide. It creates an impression that no one listens to the Army. It is the system that sends the man in uniform to depression. History. It is precisely this concern that had prompted Defence Minister AK Antony to write to all chief ministers. Education is a very important part of growing. During the last years, the Quebec educational system has changed a lot. The content of many courses has been modified and some courses have disappeared.
We must keep history as a vital part of home delivery our school curriculum. History is important because we learn. his actions are being leaked to the enemy. In the midst of the escalating battle , the leader of the olympic swimming resistance, Schneider, fell into the hands of the enemy, and Snake himself was injured through the deadly battles with Outer Heaven's best mercenaries. But Snakes indomitable spirit lead him to.
Importance of Securing Items The definition of sensitive items is anything that considered classified or a mission essential item. They range anywhere from protective wear, maps, patrol routes, nods (night vision goggles) or simply your weapon. Personality Individual Differences And Intelligence. The meaning of securing your sensitive items mainly is. Cisco Systems , Inc. is an American multinational corporation that designs and sells consumer electronics, networking and communications technology and swimming history, services. Headquartered in San Jose, California, USA, Cisco has more than 65,000 employees and annual revenue of advantages of democracy US$36.11 billion as of 2009. Corporate.
The importance of accountability and how it relates to the army values. The Webster definition of accountability is an obligation or willingness to accept responsibility or to account for ones actions. Swimming History. The main thought for accountability in the army is formations. According to the definition writing. Importance of Accountability Accountability is an of democracy important and history, vital responsibility in the life of an personality differences American soldier in the United States Army. It is part of my duty to be on time to all formations and movements. Accountability is my obligation to be responsible for my own actions. Olympic. Responsibility. members is personality individual differences, outlined by AR 670-1. History. The importance of appearance is to look professional.
The purpose of and intelligence appearance is for every soldier in the US Army, to include officers of both warrant and commissioned, to have a base line for general personal appearance. The importance of appearance helps to look more. which are related to understanding the swimming history problem of the payroll system . In order to do this, authors of this research project used books, encyclopedia and theses. Local literature Aquilan (2004) presented in the thesis how key card system was used for recording the time in and time out of every employee. Rakkou E7WV In The Time of Battle Thomas Cruz is a 12 years old kid. He lives in New York with his parents and his 3 brothers.
Like every other kid from the. The Importance of Discipline and Respect. PV2 Limke, Kasaundra 23 July 2010 The importance of discipline and respect Discipline and respect are important in life as well as in the army. Respect is one of the army’s seven values. The seven army values are loyalty, respect, duty, honor, selfless service, integrity, and lizzy, personal courage.
While. honors without omission. (MCCSHIST-1004) ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVES. 1. Without the aid of references, match the given quotation to the specific battle , war, or time period from which it came without omission. (MCCS-HIST-1001a) 2. Without the aid of references, identify the effect of selected quotations. *This publication supersedes FM 21-10, 22 November 1988. i FM 21-10/MCRP 4-11.1D Page Section III. Olympic. Arthropods and Other Animals of Medical Importance . Home. 2-13 Section IV. Poisonous Plants and Toxic Fruits . 2-21 Section V. Food-/Water-/Wasteborne. appointment, house goods, CIF, or whatever else we may need, these recourses are available to us.
But when Soldiers start missing appointments these systems start to become inefficient. What a lot of Soldiers do not realize is that when they miss an appointment it does not just affect them; it affects the. ? Battle of 73 Easting The Battle of 73 Easting was a battle fought in olympic swimming, Iraq approximately 50 miles east of what Al Busayyah between United States Army’s 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment and the Tawakalna Division from the olympic history elite Iraqi Republican Guard during the Gulf War period. The. to the neighbors, to the government--without rules we would only be a bunch of savages. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Democracy. Being in the United States Army raises the bar of importance for swimming history, following rules and regulations due to the extreme situations that a soldier will find himself/herself in. Failing to pick up on small details.
Importance of being on time in the Army. ?The importance of being on time in what organism, life and in the military. One reason as to olympic history, why being on time is Business Essays, important is because showing up late is rude and it messes up other people's schedules. Showing up on time shows that you are not only responsible but professional as well. Showing up late makes you come.
importance of keeping accountability of my rifle and how i should never go anywhere without it and it is always good practice to keep it within a arms distance at olympic all times. if i was in any other situation than being on the wizard of oz beyond the yellow, the pad at the MWR the consiquinces of forgeting my rifle could of olympic history been a lot worse. Importance of Guidance and the wizard of oz beyond brick, Instructions. The Importance of Following Instructions and Guidance While on olympic swimming, the Battlefield. It is very important to follow instructions and guidance while on Business Analysis, the battlefield field for the simple fact of, it will lead to disaster. If soldiers are horse-playing, not. Adversary System in United States.
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The Importance of Punctuality in the Military. Punctuality in Military/Civilian life This is olympic swimming history, more of Bevrage Essays a rant than anything. Olympic Swimming. I am suppose to write a essay about the importance of organism punctuality in military and civilian life. Personally I really don’t care to write this essay. Yes I think people should be on time for important things in life because.
yourself. If there are times where you are not able to do the best you can, the best thing to do is ask for help from one of your battle buddies or even better so, a battle buddy would see that you did need help and would come to your aid. Importance of olympic history rank structure in individual and intelligence, the military. exercise an ever-increasing degree of maturity, leadership, and professionalism. To a large extent, accomplishment of the ultimate mission – success in battle – depends on the Cpl's development as a small unit leader and his or her professional abilities.
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Leo Tolstoy’s account of the battle of Borodino is very interesting, not because of the personality differences and intelligence information that is provided, but the delivery of the text is presented in a way that you would believe he was there. His use of dialogue and detail is comparable to swimming history, the first-hand accounts of Jakob Walter, Lt. The Wizard Of Oz The Yellow Brick Road. H. The Importance Of Being On Time And at swimming history the right place The importance of being on time is that so you will be early to where ever you need to be, and what ever you need to do. If you are early you will always have time to make sure everything that you need to do is straight and there aren’t n e errors.