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Soju, Beer Pong, and summary of mice, the Romance of Cultural Exchange (or the Cultural Exchange of Romance) Stefano Young didn’t know the difference between Korea, China, and Japan until he was 23 — but then he met a Korean woman, learned to imperialism, say “????,” and has studied Korean language and short summary, culture ever since. In this occasional series, the Los Angeles Review of Books Korea Blog presents his essays on his ever-deepening experiences with Korean life, culture, and about Octavian,, family. Links to short summary of mice, previous installments appear at the bottom of the media imperialism post. We met at an ice cream social before the start of and men classes, a ho-hum affair organized by the graduate dormitory staff to welcome bewildered graduate students from all over the world. I considered not going, but the alternative — surfing the internet for a few days until my first class — was not very appealing. I had just graduated from MIT and finished a solo cross-country road trip to the parched American Southwest with all of my belongings crammed into imperialism a red 1988 Mercury Cougar with a black canvas top (the “Bostonian” edition). The car didn’t have a working radio, so I plugged a boombox into summary the cigarette lighter with a special adapter, resting the boombox on the central console for tunes while traveling.
Emboldened by that adventure, I struck up conversations with the other graduate students at the social, first meeting a friendly Indian-American guy who allayed my fears that graduate school was reserved for antisocial weirdos. As we were talking, my peripheral vision picked up a strong signal: a beautiful girl was standing about 10 feet from media, me, looking as though she had come from a faraway place. Rather tall for an Asian, with a long, slender neck, and short, incredibly smooth skin, she carried herself with such poise and her clothes were so stylish that she was an anomaly in a roomful of Octavian, graduate students in varying degrees of dishevelment. Short Of Mice! I invited her to join the conversation with my Indian friend Chet, and I learned that her name was Garam (with a rolled “r”) and Coorporation Essay, she would be joining the Applied Physics department as well. We discussed her name, and how she spelled it with a “G” even though it sounds different in Korean: “I should have spelled it with ‘K’,” she said embarrassedly.
She said it means “river” in “native” Korean, the half of the language not rooted in Chinese. As I listened to her, I wondered internally if I could locate Korea on a map. Let’s see… you’ve got China, of course. Short Summary Of Mice And Men! Then there’s Japan… and don’t forget India is also a part of Asia. History Of Influenza! Russia’s above China… Chet’s roommate Yeejoon, a Korean guy from a different department, joined our circle, and at summary and men the end of our conversation the four of us exchanged contact info and agreed to meet up again before classes started. We all went out for pizza the following night, and afterwards Chet and I decided to introduce the two Koreans to a staple of the The Online Battle: Essay American college experience: beer pong. In return, the Koreans would procure a few bottles of a Korean drink called soju to share. Chet and short, I drove to Walmart to pick up some ping pong balls, and imperialism, when we arrived back at and men his two-bedroom dorm apartment, we set up a rectangular table in the narrow hallway.
The teams were Chet and Yeejoon versus me and Garam. Media Imperialism! To make the game challenging, Chet and of mice and men, Yeejoon stood in Octavian,, the kitchen and Garam and of mice, I stood in the doorway to of the, the bedroom at the end of the hall. The games progressed at a leisurely pace, with Chet and me hitting most of the cups for our respective teams. Since Garam and I were standing near the bedroom doorway, the of mice occasional ping pong ball took an odd bounce and media, rolled onto short summary of mice, the white carpet of the bedroom. We both scrambled into about Octavian, Roman the bedroom to retrieve a stray ball, and as I was returning to summary of mice and men, the table through the open doorway, I brushed arms with her, just for a moment. I felt a tingle, as if someone had dragged a feather lightly through my arm hair. We looked at each other, and her gaze seemed to history, dwell just a little longer than before, with the hint of a smile on her face. Short Summary And Men! Game on , I thought. The teams were evenly matched, and at the end of a best-of-three tournament, there was one cup left on each side of the table. Bullying Essay! We exchanged near-misses for a few rounds, both sides focusing intently when the ball was released and of mice, groaning or sighing with relief when it dropped again to The Online Battle: Cyber Bullying, the floor.
Then, Garam cocked her slender, bare arm and fired a line-drive shot that sank into short and men the bottom of the cup at the opposite end of the table. Chet looked deflated, and I turned to Garam and threw my hands up in the air in Essay the Greatest Roman, excitement. Matching my excitement, she shrieked with delight and wrapped her arms around me in a victory embrace. From that moment on, I was infatuated with Garam. We concluded the short summary of mice soju and beer party to let Chet and Yeejoon go to bed, and Garam and I stumbled back to our respective dorm rooms. The two of us continued chatting late into the night. Having chosen the and pharmacogenetics four-bedroom dorm apartment because it was the cheapest option, I was randomly assigned three roommates from three different departments. The first, a guy from Taiwan studying a subject called Management Information Systems, was kind, with thick glasses and a strong accent, but I rarely saw him because he had a girlfriend and he spent a lot of time at her place. The second was 40, single, and summary of mice, studying in pharmacogenomics, the History department after a long hiatus from short, school.
He loved to history, talk and short, complained to me about many things, including how women in San Diego (where he’d lived for of the Disney, a while) only care about how much money you make and what kind of car you drive. Short Of Mice! He brought a younger girl back to his room sometimes, once whispering to me that “she’s got tattoos in places you wouldn’t believe.” I believed him. I also lent him a fork and a knife since he owned no utensils, and Octavian, the Greatest Roman, he never returned them. My third roommate was a recluse, majoring in Organ Performance in the music department, who still looked and dressed like a teenage boy. He walked rapidly and with a rigid posture, as if he couldn’t swivel his head independently of his body, and short of mice, slammed the door behind him whenever he entered his room. One night, I was chatting into the wee hours of the morning with Garam when I decided to get up and media imperialism, have a snack. There in the shared kitchen stood Mr. Short Summary Of Mice And Men! Organist, standing in the dark and wielding a knife above his head, a scene straight out of a horror movie.
We both froze for a moment, and then he lowered the knife and retreated to his room like someone had pressed 2X rewind on the tape of The Online Battle: Cyber his life. Garam also received a curious, reclusive pick in the roommate lottery. Since she had opted for the more spacious two-bedroom apartment, there was just the one roommate, a girl majoring in Library Sciences who rarely left her room. Of Mice And Men! When she did, she couldn’t seem to find much to smile or laugh about. Still, Garam’s apartment was cleaner and quieter than mine, so that’s where we held our first official date. We had gone out Self-Regulated Essay examples with groups of friends from the dorm several times, but this time it was just the two of us.
The plan? Watch Scent of a Woman on DVD. I had never seen it before, and she seemed to short summary of mice, think it was required viewing for a new couple. Watching movies together became our thing. Garam liked to go to of the Disney, the movies at any time of day, including in of mice, broad daylight. Media! I explained to her that I felt strange leaving the theater when the short sun was still out, and she responded that in Korea she would frequently go to about the Greatest Roman, movies at nine in the morning or earlier, and the theaters were still packed. She also explained that all Korean theaters also had assigned seating, so she found the first-come-first-serve American system uncivilized. I did, however, introduce her to something in American moviegoing she could get excited about: the weekend “double-feature.” After a movie ended one Saturday afternoon, I showed her how to play it cool and slip into another theater where a different movie was just starting. Short Of Mice And Men! Try doing that in Korea , I thought. One day I saw a flyer for a free movie screening at the student union and made plans to meet Garam there in the evening. I showed up a little before the scheduled showtime to a mostly empty theater.
The lights went dark and there was still no sign of my date, so I sent her a text message. She replied cryptically that the police were at her apartment. I immediately ducked out The Online Battle: Bullying of the theater and called to short of mice and men, tell her I was coming over, breaking into a sprint. When I arrived at her apartment, the police had gone and Cyber Bullying Essay, Garam was sitting on the sofa, talking with another student from our department in Korean. I sat on the opposite side of the short summary of mice and men sofa and asked for an explanation. Media Imperialism! The Korean guy took off, saying he had an appointment, leaving Garam to recount the short summary and men story to Essay about Roman, me in English. Her roommate had attempted to commit suicide.
She climbed up to the roof of the three-story dormitory building and threw herself off, but survived the fall. Short Summary Of Mice! When she recovered after her treatment in the hospital, the university would ask her to media, leave for a semester so she could get the appropriate help for her mental state. Garam and I looked at each other. I wondered aloud if our laughter and playfulness during date after date were audible through her roommate’s bedroom door, and if that had pushed her over the edge. “In any case,” Garam said, “I can’t live in the same apartment after that episode.” The dorm staff kindly arranged for her to move into a different two-bedroom apartment, and summary of mice, her new roommate was a sweet, fastidious Japanese woman who instantly made a good impression on Garam, and on me. Before Garam and I started dating, I had never eaten Korean food. Of The! When I was a kid, my family went out for Chinese about summary and men once per year, and Essay, I only ordered the two items on the menu that I knew I liked: Peking duck and of mice and men, moo-shu pork. Media! I didn’t eat sushi until college.
Pre-made rolls were available all over campus and short of mice and men, I ate them occasionally, but mostly I subsisted on pizza, burritos, and fried food prepared by Essay the Greatest Roman Leader the one-eyed chef in my fraternity house who used to cook on of mice and men, a Navy submarine. As Garam introduced me to Korean food gradually during that first semester, I acquired a taste for the fundamentals. The first meal, and The Indulgence of the Disney Coorporation, the one we would share most often thereafter at the circular table in her kitchen, centered around dwenjang jigae (?? ??), a heartier version of the summary of mice and men miso soup you would find in a Japanese restaurant. She served it with rice, a stack of business-card-sized seaweed papers, soy sauce, and The Online Battle: Cyber Bullying, a small mound of kimchi. Summary Of Mice! When I saw her meal laid out on and pharmacogenetics, the table in eight small dishes for two people, I became ashamed and of mice, defensive about my first attempt to cook for her: a deluxe frozen DiGiorno’s pizza. (But it was deluxe !)
That day, I received my first of many lessons on how to eat. With American food, I no longer needed instruction, except maybe when selecting the right utensils at rare formal occasions like a conference dinner or a wedding reception. Everything else seemed simple enough: sandwich? Pick it up and eat it. Spaghetti?
Grab a fork, twirl it around, and imperialism, eat it. Korean food was different. “You can take some rice with chopsticks, wrap it in the seaweed, and then dip it in the soy sauce,” Garam explained. “Koreans also like to short, dip some rice into Octavian, the Greatest Roman Leader the dwenjang and eat it this way.” It felt like a lot of of mice work to eat Korean food, and it wasn’t very filling, especially for Self-Regulated examples, a gym rat like myself who drank protein shakes every day. Garam was impressed with my chopstick skills, which she claimed were better than hers. I held the chopsticks so they formed a V shape, whereas she held them so they formed an X. Summary And Men! She also explained that, while Japanese use cylindrical chopsticks and Disney Coorporation, Chinese use square chopsticks, Koreans use flat ones. Hers were shiny silver; I was only summary and men familiar with the disposable wooden kind that always splintered into odd shapes when I yanked them apart. A few days after sampling the basic fare at Essay about Octavian, the Greatest home, we joined a bigger group of friends and strangers for a meal at the only Korean barbecue restaurant in town, an experience unlike the ones I had in Garam’s kitchen — and one that left me feeling completely stuffed. Our server’s Korean was not completely fluent, but he understood enough to take orders from the natives. I had handed over my menu because the summary Koreans said they would order for everyone, family-style. In the Learning Essay center of our table was an inset grill with a fume hood above it, rising up to the ceiling.
Well, that doesn’t look safe , I thought. (Incidentally, that particular restaurant burned down a few years later.) As the grill warmed, a server came with an assortment of small dishes on a roller cart, far more than I had seen on the table in Garam’s apartment: bean sprouts, spinach, potato salad, acorn jellies, and radish kimchi, to name just a few. There was also a small stone bowl of an orangish stew that looked like the dwenjang I had tried at summary of mice and men Garam’s apartment, but when I took a spoonful it nearly burned a hole through my tongue. Cyber Bullying Essay! Beer and soju arrived, and suddenly I found myself with barely enough room to rest my elbows on short, the table. Plates of raw meat came next, along with a pair of tongs and pharmacogenomics, scissors in a cylindrical tin. Scissors, at a restaurant?
I mused. The Korean guy nearest to the tin grabbed the tongs and began placing long strips of beef on the grill. I thought somebody should check his credentials before we entrusted him with the cooking, but the other Koreans deferred to him without question. He confidently flipped and shuffled the meat around on the grill until it was glistening with sweat and starting to crisp at the edges. Droplets of hot oil hopped from the grill onto the paper placemat in front of me. I tried to relax, but the and men pace was frenetic. And Pharmacogenetics! Our designated chef lifted the cooked meat strips, cut them into bite-sized pieces with the of mice scissors, and pushed the pieces towards the of influenza cooler outer edge of the grill. Garam grabbed a piece with her chopsticks and placed it in the small dish in front of me, which also contained thin green onions in a light, spicy dressing. Summary! “You can take one of these lettuce or sesame leaves and wrap it with the meat,” Garam explained, pointing to a tray of leafy greens. “It’s also good if you dip the meat in sesame oil and add kimchi and some rice before you wrap it.” I took a bite of my wrap, and while I was chewing, she ate something and placed another morsel into my dish. She continued refilling my dish, and Essay, the dishes of others, throughout the meal. In addition to the eating rules, I learned more about the infamous Korean soju.
Korean friends had said that it was similar to Japanese sake, but different. When I tried it that first time in Chet’s apartment, it had reminded me more of a watered-down vodka, but when I proposed that analogy to the Koreans, it didn’t take. It’s our drink, they seemed to be saying. We’ll let you know what it tastes like, and how to drink it. First, one guy across the table complained about the short summary price. “$6.95 for a bottle?
In Korea it’s 1000 won, and even at the Korean grocery store in U.S. And Pharmacogenetics! it’s only two dollars!” he said. I often heard similar complaints when we went out to Korean establishments and was surprised by their indignation, considering that the short summary of mice and men same beer that cost me four dollars in Arizona cost seven in Boston and 12 in Las Vegas. The Online Battle: Cyber! I was unaware of short summary of mice any American consensus on how much alcohol should cost; $6.95 for a bottle of 19-percent alcohol liquor at a restaurant seemed reasonable. The drinking rules were predicated on knowing the ages of everyone in our party, so the first order of business was to go around the table sharing what year we were born. Then the rules were as follows: when an older person pours soju for a younger person, the recipient holds his small shot glass with both hands. When a younger person pours, he should hold the bottle with two hands. If, however, the Essay younger person wants to be hip and a little less formal, he can simply touch the elbow of his pouring arm with the opposite hand.
The second rule of soju drinking was that the younger person should look away from his elders while in the act of drinking (still, of course, holding the glass with two hands). But what to do when surrounded on all sides by older people? In that case, you could attempt an awkward 180-degree turn and drink while facing another table. Or you could bow sheepishly and take a sip without making eye contact with anyone. Other, more subtle practices took much longer to learn. When your elder’s glass is almost empty, for example, you should be conscious of short of mice and men its pending emptiness, waiting to grab the bottle (with both hands) to The Indulgence of the Disney, offer another glass. If you aren’t ready, some other youngster will likely step in and take your brownie points. Throughout the meal, the Koreans waited on the foreigners and each other, our servers only on call for when a problem arose. When we ran out of salad greens, for example, one of the Koreans hollered to our server across the restaurant to of mice, bring more. “In some of the larger Korean restaurants,” Garam said, “they have a button on the table to call the server.” Like a flight attendant call button.
Nice, I thought. Despite the fact that we were left to cook our own meat, the service was excellent. Learning! Orange slices came out at the end of the meal as a palette cleanser. All told, the price per person was very reasonable, and summary and men, though in Korea the oldest person would have felt compelled to pay, we poor graduate students on U.S. soil agreed to split the bill with a stack of credit cards. On one of our next dates, Garam and The Online Battle:, I watched the movie Oldboy , with its famous scene where the main character eats an entire live octopus on camera without the help of short and men computer graphics. “People eat live octopus in Korea?” I asked her.
“Yes, well not as big as that one, but Koreans eat them. Do you want to of the Coorporation Essay, try?” I assured her that I was up to the challenge. As the first-semester classes grew more difficult, I started working on assignments with Garam, more for my own benefit than for hers. One class in summary, particular proved mathematically challenging for many, but with her seemingly unlimited patience for long, complicated derivations, Garam excelled. On one of the rare occasions when she got stuck on a problem, I suggested she plug the equation into a computer program to Cyber Bullying Essay, get the answer. “You can do that?” she exclaimed. “Well the professor didn’t say we can’t, so…” I stammered. In Korea, Garam and her classmates did everything by hand, with paper and pencil. She still carried a cute pencil case in summary, graduate school and made extensive use of a small ruler for drawing precise, straight lines.
She worked on blank white paper and her handwriting was neat, so every solution to a homework assignment had the Disney polish and readability of and men a professional document. Watching her, I also learned that Koreans say fractions denominator-first: “three under one” (??? ?) instead of Essay Octavian, Roman Leader “one-over-three.” Despite her somewhat unorthodox style of working, she aced all of her American tests, while I, an MIT graduate, struggled to of mice, keep up. (“When I heard there was an MIT guy in my class,” Garam said as we sat around the family’s table reminiscing about media imperialism graduate school years later, “I told my mom, ‘I’m gonna beat him.’ (‘? ??? ????’)” The fall weather grew colder, and Garam’s world was rocked by another drama: a Korean friend of summary and men hers had been in Phoenix with his girlfriend eating dinner and singing karaoke, and on the way home they were both killed in an accident on the highway. History! Her friend may have been under the influence at the time, but we never found out for short summary, sure. Garam and Octavian, Roman, a group of Koreans gathered together for a memorial service, and short summary and men, the year’s revelry turned towards solemnity. When the first semester ended, Garam flew back to her hometown of Busan and I flew back to the east coast.
During winter break, I convinced myself that I had only one chance for keeping the relationship going: if I could learn Korean. (photo credit: Matt @ PEK, under Creative Commons license)
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The Christian Humanism Of G. K. Short Summary And Men! Chesterton: Truth and the Paradoxical Imagination. In recent decades conservative Christians have decried what they call secular humanism, a creed that undermines the and pharmacogenetics religious and moral foundations of this culture. As a result many are persuaded that humanism and Christianity are incompatible, that a person could not possibly be both a Christian and a humanist. This is a terrible mistake. The roots of Christian humanism go deep. They reach back to the writings of ancient church fathers such as Basil of Caesarea and John Chrysostom, St. Summary Of Mice! Augustine, and Pope Gregory the Great. In the late medieval period and the Renaissance a new wave of Christian humanism spread in the writings of such important figures as Dante, Erasmus, and Thomas More. In recent memory, G. K. Chesterton stands out as one of the most forceful voices of that tradition. And it is to Chesterton that I principally want to turn here in order to Essay demonstrate what Christian humanism looks like and suggest why we might need new expressions of it as we enter the third millennium.
Recently, Mr. Gregory Wolfe edited a volume entitled The New Religious Humanists wherein he brings together a broad range of essays by contemporary writers whose work challenges the dominance of the short of mice and men secularist world view. Wolfe argues that in the history of Western culture religious humanism has made only infrequent appearances and has rarely occupied center stage. He explains that it is a mode of thought that tends to arise when cultural cohesion is threatened by large social and The Online intellectual upheavals. He regards the time in which we live as such a moment. Chesterton responded with Christian humanism to what he judged to be a serious breakdown of the short of mice and men fundamental moral suppositions deposited by biblical faith and the classical tradition. He believed that this declension was due to and pharmacogenetics the loss of conviction in the culture about the reality of the Incarnation, that is of God truly having become a human being in Jesus Christ with all the import that that has for human existence. Short Of Mice! For Chesterton, the doctrine of the Incarnation is the media imperialism hinge that holds together what is, for the Christian, a vision of the summary of mice and men world that is essentially paradoxical. And he is astonishingly adept at employing this vision in his cultural criticism and Christian apologetics. The Incarnation sheds light where sin deceives and despair darkens the human horizon.
Sin causes us to experience spirit in opposition to matter, faith in conflict with reason, life defeated by death. But the Incarnation reveals these apparent contradictions as paradoxes. Contradiction may signal futility, but paradox is Self-Regulated Learning examples, pregnant with the possibility of resolution and harmony. Paradox, says Chesterton, is the ally of Truth. The good news of the Christian Gospel is that God who is Spirit became flesh, infinite being became finite existence, the short of mice immortal One became mortal man in order that death might be undone and humanity might be drawn up into spiritual life. God in his being and The Indulgence Coorporation act unties the deadly Gordian knot of sin.
The errors of short summary of mice, pagan religion and the falsehoods of secularism are exposed by the Incarnation and replaced by its truth in paradox. This divine and human truth opens a way to salvation for man other than an Learning examples escape of the soul from summary of mice and men matter and time or the Learning Essay examples desperate embrace of mere flesh and finitude in a courtship with personal extinction. True humanism, argued Chesterton, is theocentric and not anthropocentric. Most important, Christian humanism honors the of mice fact that, though created from the dust, the human being is the sole creature that God has made in his very own image and of influenza likeness. It answers humankind's need to be redeemed from a fallen condition in which this image has been tarnished, and in which death works like the rust that destroys even the most beautiful statue. Short Summary! God is at the center of everything, and media imperialism God in Jesus Christ draws the human race back to that center. That is how human beings become fully human and inherit eternal life. God in short Christ affirms our enfleshed and historical existence and gives meaning to it in spite of media, death. Within human culture and through the elements of this material world, bread and wine, oil and water, flesh and blood, the incarnate Son, the Only-Begotten of the Father, saves us body and soul from sin and death.
God has given Christians compelling reasons to labor with him within and through this physical world to redeem the entire creation. And these Christian facts, Chesterton argued, are the inspiration of Christian humanism. Such a humanism contrasts sharply with man-centered philosophies of life that embrace matter to the exclusion of spirit, or reject the material world in a flight to something called spiritual. Secularist humanism is not necessarily atheistic, but it is--in whatever form it takes, whether militant or mild--a symptom of the and men breakdown of the Christian paradoxical imagination. Chesterton believed that the collapse of this wonderful paradoxical vision of man in his relation to both heaven and earth lay at the source of the modern crisis of Self-Regulated Learning, meaning. And Men! Indeed, what makes Chesterton still instructive for us today is that he lived at the Greatest Roman Leader, a moment in history that marked the end of modernity and was on the cusp of post-modernity. Modernity was the result of a five hundred year process in which the dual Christian truth about the degradation and dignity of human existence, illuminated by summary of mice and men, the Incarnation, held together by the paradoxical imagination, was split apart. Secularist humanism emerged from Essay examples this fractured truth and has not known how to put it back together, even when there is the desire to do so.
It seems doomed, rather, to fly from one pole of that truth to the other. On the one hand, it seeks to affirm, through some form of short of mice, idealism or other, the pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics divinity of human life--but abandons the doctrine of the Incarnation . On the other hand, it is drawn toward the opposite pole of short of mice, naturalism and relativism and forgets the crucial differences between finitude and sin, and distinctions between error and contravention of higher law. Chesterton's life straddled the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This gave him the media imperialism vantage to see the line that was being crossed in his day. The old idealistic liberal humanism born of the Renaissance and Enlightenment was giving way to a militant, anti-theistic secularism whose logical outcome is nihilism. The secularist variety of humanism is especially subversive and damaging to Christian faith because it is parasitic.
It exploits and expends the moral capital of Christianity and is incapable of replenishing that capital. In Orthodoxy , his great classic work of Christian apologetics, Chesterton observes that secularist humanism is using, and summary using up, the imperialism truths that remain out of the old treasury of Christendom; including, of course, many truths known to pagan antiquity but crystallized in Christendom. Of Mice And Men! The deposit of moral truths set adrift by a disintegrating Christendom is thus gradually degraded--reduced to ideological half-truths and sappy clichs. Consider how secularist humanism uses--and abuses--the distinctly Christian virtue of charity. Instead of the pharmacogenomics selfless seeking of another's good, charity becomes sugary sentiment. It is invoked to deny that forgiveness entails judgment and short summary repentance, or that sin even exists. In due course, secularist humanism may rob or empty all of the virtues of their true and Octavian, the Greatest vital meaning. Eventually, even ordinary religious folk will catch on and give up believing in perennial norms of human conduct communicated by Scripture and the Church. The final outcome of this kind of process may be seen in what has been done to the religious notion of the short summary of mice and men dignity of Battle: Bullying, human life.
Uprooted from summary of mice its biblical ground and the garden of the Church, its deep human meaning preserved in media imperialism the Christian doctrine of the imago Dei is forgotten. Secularist humanism embraces this desiccated concept of human dignity and invokes it, ironically, nay tragically, to justify acts that contradict traditional moral teaching. What can the dignity of human life mean when the existence of God is denied in the most practical ways at every level and in every sphere of society? Thus, today, abortion and physician assisted suicide are justified by growing numbers of people as the appropriate means to honor and secure the dignity of persons. Chesterton says that the humanism of the secularist leads morality down a perilous road, a road he tells us in short summary and men Orthodoxy that is paved with pragmatism and relativism.
Man is told to think what he must and never mind the Absolute. But precisely one of the things he must think, adds Chesterton, is the Absolute--otherwise the Cyber whole of the rest of his world is an illusion. Both pragmatism and relativism make nonsense of the short of mice and men human sense of fact. The road they pave leads to the devil's version of the history Emerald City where nothing is what it seems, words are no longer tools of truth but instruments of raw power, and the moral compass is given up because there are no true poles of good and evil or right and wrong. This suicide of thought, as Chesterton calls it, leads inexorably toward the denial of the existence of the good or anything that is really permanently human. In 1905, in a book entitled Heretics , Chesterton anticipates with uncanny prescience what postmodernism at the turn of the twenty-first century boldly declares. Modern morality, he writes, seems only capable of making a case for short summary of mice and men itself by pointing out the horrors that follow breaches of law. Pre-marital sex may be inadvisable because one risks pregnancy or, worse still, Herpes or AIDS.
One probably shouldn't lie because lying undercuts the social trust that is the precondition necessary for getting what one really wants. All of these prohibitions are subject, of course, to Self-Regulated alteration or negation if means may be found to avoid the bad consequences. In other words, modern morality is consequentialist. More than that it is morbidly consequentialist, having lost a sure vision of the goodness of short summary of mice and men, goodness. Images of car wrecks, pictures of people dying from AIDS, and photographs of aborted fetuses won't necessarily stop people from drinking and driving, engaging in casual or unprotected sex, or escaping the pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics inconvenience of having a child by short summary and men, having an abortion. At the Creation, God did not say: I will make the seas with clean water not polluted water and the land arable and not desert because it would be a disaster for the environment otherwise. He made the seas clean and the land inhabitable because it was good that they be so. A vision of the good has far greater power to move men and women to do the right thing than all the ugly and terrifying images we may conjure up to frighten them into doing it. There is this great gap in modern ethics, Chesterton concludes, which is the absence of vivid pictures of Essay about the Greatest Roman Leader, purity and spiritual triumph. He continues in Heretics:
A young man may keep himself from summary of mice vice by continually thinking of disease. He may keep himself from it also by continually thinking of the Virgin Mary. There may be question about Octavian, the Greatest Roman which method is the more reasonable, or even about which is the more efficient. Short Summary Of Mice And Men! But surely there can be no question about which is the more wholesome. In response to of the Disney Coorporation Essay these trends and wrong turns, Chesterton draws up a defense of our humanity with both feet firmly planted on the unmovable ground of the short summary of mice Christian doctrine of the Incarnation. In other words, he expounds a Christian humanism. The task of this Christian humanism is to defend our humanum against a philosophy that would persuade us that human nature is Essay the Greatest Leader, without form or essence and summary and men that our doings have no more significance than the mold that grows in the shower stall. Chesterton once said that he was about the task of rallying the really human things. Doing this he thought depends upon the recovery of dogma against an anti-dogmatic secularism. In Heretics Chesterton explains:
Man can be defined as an Octavian, Roman Leader animal that makes dogmas. As he piles doctrine on short summary and men, doctrine and conclusion on The Indulgence, conclusion in the formation of some tremendous scheme of philosophy and of mice religion, he is, in media the only legitimate sense . . . Summary And Men! becoming more and more human. History! When he drops one doctrine after another in a refined scepticism, when he says that he has outgrown definitions, when he says that he disbelieves in finality, when, in his own imagination, he sits as God, holding to no form of creed and contemplating all, then he is by and men, that very process sinking slowly backwards into the vagueness of the vagrant animals and the unconsciousness of grass. Trees have no dogmas. Turnips are singularly broad-minded. The secularists contradict themselves. They oppose dogma dogmatically and deny their own humanity in Battle: Cyber doing it.
They claim to practice empiricism but deny the testimony of lives lived in faith. The seeds of suspicion they sow can grow, however, into fresh seedlings of belief. This is not only humanly possible, this is necessary in order that we retain our humanity. Truths turn into dogmas the instant that they are disputed. Thus every man who utters a doubt defines a religion.
And the scepticism of our time does not really destroy the beliefs, rather it creates them; gives them limits and short their plain and defiant shape. . . . We who are Christians never knew the great philosophic common sense which inheres in that mystery until the anti-Christian writers pointed it out to us. The great march of mental destruction will go on. Everything will be denied. Everything will become a creed. Essay Roman! It is a reasonable position to deny the stones in the street; it will be a religious dogma to assert them. Summary! It is a rational thesis that we are all in a dream; it will be a mystical sanity to say that we are all awake. Fires will be kindled to testify that two and two make four. Swords will be drawn to prove that leaves are green in summer. We will be defending not only the incredible virtues and sanities of human life, but something more incredible still, this huge impossible universe which stares us in about the Greatest Roman the face. We shall fight for the visible prodigies of the invisible. We shall look on short summary and men, the impossible grass and imperialism the skies with a strange courage.
We shall be those who have seen and yet have believed. Chesterton's turn to dogma is not what it sounds like to the ears of secularists, modern and post-modernist. He is not saying we must believe in dogmas or else. He is of mice, not forcing dogma down our throats. Nor is dogma an irrational bulwark against progress. Rather, dogma ultimately emerges and prevails precisely because human beings cannot live, prosper, and progress in a world in which there are no truths. This is the last paradox to which Chesterton draws our attention.
Dogma comes with risks. Dogma can lead to bellicose combat over many truths and many gods. Learning Essay Examples! For in a sinful world dogma combats dogma and Truth is the elusive prize. Nevertheless, dogma, the right dogma, can elevate us to god-likeness, in the image of the summary of mice and men one triune God, in the unity of his Truth, revealed in the flesh of one man who lived two thousand years ago. Essay Roman! Contrary to so much of what claims to short summary of mice be Christian in our culture, we are called to believe not in order to gain peace but to know and live the pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics Truth. Dogma is on the way to short and men Truth; but it is hardly the stuff of peace. The first and last lesson of about Octavian, the Greatest Leader, Christian humanism is this: We, by our own efforts alone, cannot sew together the cloth of peace from short our sinful and tattered human nature.
Real peace, like real humanity, is a gift and a transcendent thing that we will enjoy only when we wholly accept and do faithfully obey the God who has become human.
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comparation essay A TRADUO LITERRIA:UM CAMPO INTERDISCIPLINAR. Alba Olmi (USCS/RS) A traduo “feliz” aquela que, embora mantendo inevitveis diferenas com o original, preserva a energia do seu imaginrio, ativando-a num contexto histrico especfico, vencendo o tempo, a distncia ideolgica, epistmica e cultural, produzindo aquela emoo que deriva do dilogo tornado possvel entre indivduos diversos, lnguas, culturas, pocas e povos. Na diversificao das abordagens tradutrias da obra literria, toma forma e ganha peso o enfoque orientado para o texto-alvo (TA), conforme Toury (1980, 1981, 1982, 1984) e Lefevere (1970, 1971, 1982, 1983, 1992, 1993), cuja justificativa assenta na teoria da recepo e coloca em relativo segundo plano o original, posto que a obra traduzida se situaria no contexto da lngua e da cultura-alvo. Of Mice And Men? As teorias tradicionais, que enfocam o texto-fonte (TF) como ponto de partida, pareceriam, portanto, inadequadas, para alguns tericos, porque centradas no autor e na obra, levando em conta apenas o valor intrnseco da obra, em detrimento dos polissistemas literrios e da importncia da traduo no incremento e na renovao da literatura como um todo. A qualidade de uma traduo. Defendemos que no campo da anlise tradutria parece haver lugar para uma enfoque de cunho estilstico, centrado no TF que, embora no negue a validade das teorias que privilegiam o TA, demonstra ser capaz de dar conta de diversos aspectos envolvidos na traduo e de desmentir, pelo menos em parte, a crtica que se faz hoje a esse tipo de abordagem. A estilstica comparada, sustentada pela teoria e pela crtica da traduo, demonstrou-se um procedimento-instrumento adequado para a avaliao da traduo literria, proporcionando tambm o surgimento de propostas alternativas, com o intuito de desvendar alguns processos tradutrios e, dessa forma, sugerir caminhos para uma melhoria da traduo literria. A literalidade, a fidelidade ao TF, consideradas por muitos tericos as vils da histria da traduo, em determinado tipo de texto, tendo em vista determinado objetivo, e seguindo determinada metodologia, podem revelar-se uma opo vivel que deve ser considerada, e no descartada a priori. A abordagem orientada para o TF.
Tendo em vista que ainda no se “construiu” um modelo definitivo, e sobretudo operacional, para a traduo literria, a minha proposta a de uma abordagem lingisticamente orientada. History? Nesse enfoque, o TF, sua estrutura lingstico-textual e seu potencial significativo em vrios nveis, incluindo o nvel do contexto situacional numa estrutura sistmica, considerado como o mais importante e, inclusive, fator constitutivo da traduo. Embora essa abordagem tenha sido criticada por diversos tericos, segundo observa House (1997:16-24), por considerarem que dessa forma se focaliza apenas um aspecto da traduo, ou seja, o aspecto semntico, no se pode negar que a abordagem lingstico-textual capaz de cobrir tanto o carter semntico quanto o pragmtico; tanto o sociocomunicativo como tambm o discursivo. Por essa razo, ao analisar os aspectos estilsticos que envolvem a conotao - mas tambm a denotao - parece possvel dar conta de aspectos estritamente relacionados ao estilo e, ao mesmo tempo, analisar aspectos sociolingsticos com funo pragmtica que o texto literrio pode deixar filtrar - sutil ou claramente - atravs das funes da linguagem predominantes no texto e pelas eventuais variantes de registro presentes na narrativa, dependendo do contexto e da situao narrativa, ou pela fala dos personagens, pelas intenes implcitas nas suas falas ou comportamentos. Na teoria da traduo literria, e portanto na anlise do texto literrio, em sua descrio/avaliao, os pressupostos pragmticos e sociolingsticos parecem importantes, pois estabelecem a relao entre forma e funo dentro de um contexto. Of Mice And Men? Temos assim a dimenso semntica e pragmtica imbricadas entre si, auxiliando na compreenso dos significados explcitos e dos implcitos do enunciado (Ducrot, 1977) e, conseqentemente, na avaliao de sua equivalncia tradutria. A possibilidade de alcanar objetivos comunicativos pelos implcitos do enunciado parece constituir-se num dos universais da linguagem, sendo portanto passveis de “traduo”, embora sua performance e interpretao estejam sujeitas a diversas condies, desde os universais at pharmacogenomics a cultura e linguagem/lngua especfica. Short? De modo que a qualidade da traduo de um ato de fala implcito estar ligada natureza das condies que subjazem a seu desempenho e interpretao. Blum-Kulka (1981: 89-95) apresenta uma proposta para o estudo da traduo, ao sugerir que a teoria dos atos de fala seja aplicada tanto teoria como ao estudo da traduo, posto que o ato tradutrio pode ser visto tambm como uma tentativa de alcanar um desempenho satisfatrio dos atos de fala, para que haja equivalncia de significado.
Ampliando a teoria de Austin (1974) para o mbito do texto, a autora enfatiza o fato de que qualquer elocuo - seja oral ou escrita - desempenha trs atos ao mesmo tempo: o ato locutrio, o ilocutrio e o perlocutrio. Media? Por isso, sustenta a autora, na tentativa de encontrar “igualdade de significado”, a traduo torna-se uma tentativa de “re-executar atos locutrios e ilocutrios que devero ter (isso, de fato, embora desejvel, ocorre muito raramente) a mesma fora ou o mesmo efeito perlocutrio que tero na lngua-alvo sobre os destinatrios, como ocorreu na lngua-fonte.” A autora acrescenta que “Uma teoria adequada da traduo deveria tentar formular as condies que estipulam a realizao bem-sucedida (ou no bem-sucedida) desses atos de fala na traduo” (id., ibid., p.89-90). Summary Of Mice? A verdadeira equivalncia se daria assim por meio da interpretao do tradutor que consegue extrair de cada realidade dada, de cada experincia, de cada leitura, algo mais, algo novo, que ainda precisa desenvolver-se e crescer. History Of Influenza? Essa seria a garantia de uma traduo “criativamente fiel”. Summary? Diante da amplitude do processo tradutrio, que abrange todos os nveis discursivos, ser preciso fazer uma breve retomada do conceito de equivalncia funcional. Equivalncia funcional e tipologias textuais. O conceito de “equivalncia” entre o texto traduzido e o original sempre foi e continua sendo o problema central da traduo tanto no campo terico como na prxis. The Indulgence Coorporation? A questo cardinal, qual se tentou e se continua tentando responder de forma definitiva, interessa e preocupa no somente os estudiosos da atualidade, mas procede j da velha distino entre traduo literal e traduo livre. And Men? Ela procura desvendar a natureza da relao que se deve estabelecer entre o aspecto “produto” e o aspecto “processo” que lhe deu origem.
Para explicar qual dos dois aspectos supracitados preciso enfrentar, as correspondncias lingsticas, limitadas estrutura de superfcie dos segmentos textuais da LF, demonstraram-se inadequadas e/ou limitadas. Self-Regulated Essay Examples? De fato, o conceito de equivalncia no de natureza esttica e definitiva, mas relativo e dinmico. Ivir (1981:51-59) considera que, embora a correspondncia formal e a equivalncia em traduo pertenam a atividades diferenciadas, e a reas e disciplinas lingsticas diversas, elas se relacionam e so por isso necessrias tanto no mbito tradutrio como tambm na anlise contrastiva. Short Summary? A argumentao de Ivir baseia-se no fato de que correspondncia formal e equivalncia tradutria representam muito mais do que mera terminologia, posto que discutir correspondncia formal implica discutir unidades lingsticas na traduo e o papel da lingstica na teoria da traduo, ao passo que, em se tratando de equivalncia tradutria em relao anlise contrastiva, a discusso se desloca para o campo da anlise contrastiva. Media? Para o autor, o conceito de equivalncia depender da orientao que se tenha da traduo. Short Summary And Men? Se o enfoque for of influenza, voltado traduo como resultado ou produto, diante de dois textos, um dos quais a traduo do outro, poder-se-ia concluir que a traduo, conforme Catford, citado por Ivir, a mera transferncia de material textual de uma lngua-fonte (LF) para o material equivalente na lngua-alvo” (LA). Nesse enfoque, argumenta Ivir, tanto a equivalncia como a traduo assumem um carter esttico que leva a concluir que para cada unidade lingstica do TF (ou de um fragmento do TF) existe um equivalente no TA, e cabe ao tradutor encontrar essa unidade, donde decorre a necessidade de diferenciar tipologias textuais e suas caractersticas nas diferentes lnguas (id., ibid., p.51-52). Parece evidente que o enfoque de Catford no se coaduna com o de Ivir.
Conforme este autor, para obter-se uma outra viso de equivalncia preciso atentar para seu carter dinmico, vendo a traduo como processo e no como resultado. Short? Nesse caso a traduo se constituiria na substituio de mensagens de uma lngua para outra, a fim de reproduzir no destinatrio a forma de equivalncia mais prxima da mensagem contida no TF, de acordo com a teoria de Nida e de Nida e Taber (1964, 1969). History Of Influenza? Nessa abordagem revela-se o aspecto comunicativo e dinmico da traduo que envolve emissor e destinatrio, adquirindo relevo as mensagens. Short? O que permanece constante, portanto equivalente, no o texto em questo, mas a mensagem (ou mensagens) e “ a essas mensagens que os participantes [do processo comunicativo] voltam a cada etapa do processo [. Essay The Greatest? ]” (1969: 52). Ao levar em conta os aspectos comunicativos e os lingsticos, e sendo estes ltimos de natureza contrastiva, Ivir v a equivalncia como um produto derivado do “contraste entre as formas realizadas textualmente pelo TF e a LA e a realizao comunicativa dos contedos extralingsticos do original na LA” (id., ibid., p.59). Num trabalho posterior, Ivir (1996:155) evidencia a relatividade inerente relao de equivalncia, afirmando que “a equivalncia relativa, no absoluta, ela emerge do contexto e da situao definidos pelo inter-jogo de todos os fatores descritos aqui, e no possui existncia fora desse contexto; em particular, [ . Short Of Mice And Men? ] no definido a priori por um algoritmo que converte as unidades da LF em unidades da LA.” Ivir evidencia assim uma clara retomada de seus posicionamentos anteriores que estabelecem a equivalncia em nvel de mensagens e em nvel de ato comunicativo, e no em nvel de unidades lingsticas. Bell (1991:3-30), por sua vez, apresenta importantes pontos de contato com Koller (1995) e Etkind (1967), ao sustentar que textos em lnguas diferentes podem receber um certo grau de equivalncia no plano semntico, sinttico, estilstico e pragmtico, de acordo com o segmento textual que o tradutor pretende considerar (palavra, sintagma nominal ou verbal, frase, pargrafo, texto) e do tipo de texto que ele est traduzindo. A relatividade do conceito de equivalncia, no entanto, deve ser relacionada no s ao tipo de escolha/deciso individual de cada tradutor, mas tambm ao ambiente sociocultural no qual ele opera, posto que a lngua um fenmeno varivel, que sofre as presses da sociedade, por ser sistema arbitrrio e tambm convencional, portanto sujeito a mudanas. nesse sentido que se pode (ou se deve) interpretar a “equivalncia na diferena” postulada por Jakobson, para quem, assim como numa mesma lngua a sinonmia no significa equivalncia absoluta entre dois termos, tambm a equivalncia tradutria no corresponde necessariamente a uma equivalncia plena do contedo semntico, posto que cdigos lingsticos diferentes podem conceituar uma mesma realidade extra-lingstica de forma diferente. Roman Leader? Jakobson (1959:232-239) fornece o exemplo da palavra “queijo” e do seu heternimo russo syr (significando tambm queijo).
Aparentemente sinnimos, os dois vocbulos no correspondem semanticamente, posto que syr obtido pela coagulao do leite somente quando se usa um fermento especial, ao passo que o “queijo” qualquer tipo de produto derivado do leite coagulado, com ou sem o acrscimo de coagulante. Summary? Parece evidente que, enquanto Jakobson aborda o problema da equivalncia sob o ngulo estritamente lingstico, a abordagem de E. The Online Battle: Essay? Nida (1964) de cunho essencialmente comunicativo. Short Of Mice And Men? Em sua traduo da Bblia, Nida opera uma distino entre “equivalncia formal” e “equivalncia dinmica”, esta alicerada no princpio do “efeito equivalente” no leitor do TA. And Pharmacogenetics? Uma posio criticada por House entre outros, como G. Short? Toury, que no v como esse efeito possa ser testado no enfoque denominado Response-Oriented, Behavioural Approaches to pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics Evaluating Translations. Apesar dos problemas que as orientaes de Nida apresentam, possvel afirmar, argumenta Federica Scarpa, que elas representam um passo importante para o debate sobre a equivalncia tradutria, pelo menos por dois motivos: “em primeiro lugar, a antiga dicotomia traduo literal versus traduo livre substituda pela dicotomia fidelidade ao autor versus fidelidade ao destinatrio; em segundo lugar, ao introduzir a variante dos efeitos sobre o destinatrio, na equivalncia dinmica, Nida confere uma dimenso pragmtica ao processo da traduo” (Scarpa, 1997:4). Of Mice And Men? Em outras palavras, o tradutor se v pressionado por uma escolha/deciso voltada equivalncia formal, em nvel semntico-referencial, ou equivalncia funcional, em nvel comunicativo e pragmtico (ou em ambos os nveis). About Octavian, The Greatest Roman Leader? A diferena parece importante, porque no primeiro caso o contexto excludo, enquanto no segundo caso o contexto essencial: surge assim uma linha divisria entre lngua como cdigo e lngua como sistema comunicativo. Se levarmos em conta, junto ao conceito de equivalncia, o de funo (ou funcionalidade) e contexto, talvez seja necessrio relembrar esses conceitos em vista da diferena de objetivos que caracterizou as duas grandes linhas na histria da lingstica do sculo XX: a) a linha formalista, cujo objetivo o estudo da lngua como forma, sistema, fora do seu contexto de uso, e. b) a linha funcional - representada pelo Crculo de Praga, e ainda por Firth, Halliday, entre outros - preocupada com a funo sociocultural da lngua enquanto instrumento que evoluiu para satisfazer as necessidades comunicativas concretas de seus usurios, que devem ser interpretadas em seu contexto extralingstico (que inclui, portanto, uma situao). Dessa dicotomia que nasce uma realidade situacional e contextual cujo efeito condicionante sobre o significado de importncia cardinal no processo tradutrio, e suas variveis devero ser consideradas pelo tradutor em suas escolhas: contedo, inteno, momento, nvel, lugar e participantes do ato comunicativo.
Teremos assim a equivalncia como adequao situao e ao contexto lingstico e extra-lingstico. O conceito de equivalncia funcional constituiu o princpio fundamental para a abordagem da traduo adotado por House (1997, op. And Men? cit.). The Indulgence Of The Disney Coorporation? A autora considera o texto traduzido equivalente ao original se este preencher a mesma funo (ou funes), e uma traduo ser adequada quando semntica e pragmaticamente equivalente a seu original, ou seja, quando apresentar a aderncia mais prxima possvel ao significado e funo do TF. A transferncia do valor comunicativo e situacional/contextual do TF para o TA ocorreria exclusivamente no tipo de traduo que a autora denomina covert , isto , um texto no-marcado do ponto de vista pragmtico, posto que receber na cultura-alvo o mesmo status que teria se tivesse sido criado na LA. Summary And Men? Na traduo manifesta, evidente, overt , pelo contrrio, a equivalncia funcional stricto sensu seria praticamente impossvel, devido s diferenas socioculturais entre os destinatrios das duas lnguas, que, quando muito amplas, so difceis de ser preenchidas, razo pela qual preciso recorrer a adaptaes de diversos nveis. O modelo housiano, embasado na equivalncia funcional, possui o mrito de ter indicado a direo que o debate sobre a equivalncia tradutria tomou nesta dcada. Pharmacogenomics And Pharmacogenetics? A proeminncia do objetivo da traduo, s vezes em detrimento da inteno comunicativa do TF, retomada e ampliada por Hatim e Mason (1998), segundo os quais o nvel de interveno do tradutor depende em grande escala das exigncias dos destinatrios. Summary And Men? O mrito desses autores terem aliado traduo as ramificaes da Lingstica que sustentam a traduo, conferindo-lhe no apenas o status de trabalho tcnico, mas tambm uma dimenso social e pragmtica. uma orientao lingstica semelhante que encontramos em Bell (1991), Gutt (1991) e Baker (1992), os quais colocam a traduo na perspectiva de uma ampla concepo integrada de pesquisas lingsticas recentes na sociolingstica, na teoria dos atos de fala, na anlise do discurso e na pragmtica.
Esse enfoque, embora no trate explicitamente da avaliao da traduo, se torna potencialmente vlido para essa finalidade, conforme argumenta House (1997, op. Pharmacogenomics And Pharmacogenetics? cit., p.19). Short Summary? De fato, a linha encabeada por Hatim e Mason, Bell, Gutt e Baker extrai a essncia de diversas e complexas reas recentes da lingstica, ampliando o conceito tradicional de intertextualidade para a cadeia intertextual, isto , para aquelas relaes referenciais cuja coerncia constri o conhecimento para alm do texto. Self-Regulated? O que Baker argumenta sobre o enfoque de Hatim e Mason que a abordagem dos estudiosos da Universidade de Edimburgo, embora teoricamente vlida, pode ser bastante difcil de aplicar, posto que a nfase excessiva no texto e no contexto pode levar a ignorar o fato de que, embora um texto seja uma unidade semntica e no gramatical, os significados se realizam atravs do wordings , e sem uma teoria baseada no wordings , no h como tornar explcita a interpretao dos significados de um texto. A distino de House entre traduo encoberta ( covert ) e manifesta ( overt ) abre caminho para que Gutt (1991:54-57) estabelea sua diferenciao entre “uso descritivo” e “uso interpretativo”. And Men? Para Gutt, no primeiro caso, a relao entre TA e TF incidental e no tem grande importncia para o sucesso da traduo (por exemplo no discurso publicitrio e na traduo tcnica), ao passo que no uso interpretativo do TF a semelhana entre TA e o original extremamente importante, razo pela qual necessrio que o TA mantenha a equivalncia com o contedo semntico e com o estilo do TF. Tomando emprestada essa distino entre semelhana interpretativa e descritiva da teoria psicolgica da pertinncia ou relevncia, que visa a explicar a comunicao em termos de interao entre contexto, estmulo e interpretao, Scarpa (1997, op. Octavian,? cit., p.9) infere que Gutt considera a traduo como uma aplicao da teoria da pertinncia. Short? Dessa forma, fica evidente que para Gutt um TA deve possuir sua prpria pertinncia e no pode, pelo contrrio, “ser pertinente apenas em virtude de sua semelhana interpretativa com o TF.”
A dissidncia entre Gutt e House reside basicamente na abordagem da equivalncia funcional: a permanncia da mesma funo na passagem de um texto a outro (TF para TA). Essay About The Greatest Leader? Na opinio de Gutt, a manuteno da funo no garante que a traduo seja equivalente em termos funcionais, porque, na passagem de uma lngua a outra, as funes textuais so variveis enquanto dependem do objetivo da comunicao. A posio de Gutt, claramente propensa ao uso interpretativo como base da traduo, e fortemente impregnada pela teoria da relevncia, considerada por House demasiado genrica e muito estreita, pois essa tentativa, afirma House (1997, op.cit., p.20-21) , incorpora a teoria da traduo teoria cognitivo-comunicacional e, por outro lado, se alinha basicamente com a abordagem orientada para o destinatrio. Sejam quais forem as posies tericas do momento, evidente que os conceitos situacional e cultural parecem ter-se tornado centrais na discusso do processo tradutrio, e nesses conceitos que o debate sobre equivalncia funcional est embasado. Short? A discusso no pode, pois, prescindir de uma abordagem que leve em considerao os modelos funcionais de Bhler e Jakobson que possuem aquela agilidade necessria para determinar as tipologias textuais com base nas funes lingsticas predominantes que se realizam na atualizao da linguagem. History Of Influenza? A atividade do tradutor ter assim parmetros suficientemente cientficos para tomar suas decises e fazer suas escolhas: traduo literal ou livre, orientada ao leitor, orientada ao texto, orientada ao cdigo, etc. Summary? Por outro lado, a avaliao da traduo poder valer-se com proveito desses parmetros, considerando categorias ou tipologias textuais, a partir das quais ser possvel alcanar uma equivalncia relativizada, isto , relacionada ao tipo de texto em questo, entre outros fatores. Embora considerando que, em sua grande maioria, os textos de gneros diversos no possuem claras e absolutas delimitaes e portanto podem apresentar sobreposies, haver sempre a possibilidade de definir qual ou quais so as funes da linguagem predominantes no texto e dessa forma detectar a intencionalidade do texto. Pharmacogenomics And Pharmacogenetics? Portanto, tendo em vista um determinado objetivo tradutrio, ser possvel proceder s escolhas adequadas para alcanar a equivalncia que, embora podendo ser formal, no exclui a funcional. Summary And Men? De fato, as tipologias textuais funcionais, centradas na funo de um texto, em dado contexto situacional, permitem decidir quais sero as diversas metodologias tradutrias. a K. Of Influenza? Reiss (1981) que devemos o mrito da adoo do tipo de classificao textual embasada nas trs macrofunes de K. Short Summary? Bhler.
Partindo do tipo de texto, Reiss prope os critrios da traduo, a fim de alcanar a equivalncia necessria e adequada. Self-Regulated Learning Essay Examples? Para o texto expressivo, centrado na funo expressiva de Blher, (funo emotiva de Jakobson), em que a forma, sua dimenso estilstica e esttica predominam, haver critrios diferentes dos que se aplicam a um texto conativo, por exemplo, centrado na persuaso, ao passo que o texto informativo (referencial) ser centrado no contedo (o referente). Em relao tipologia de Reiss, a classificao textual realizada por Newmark (1988), embora tambm pautada em Bhler, acrescenta e integra as funes de Jakobson, mantendo-lhe no entanto o mesmo esprito, e se apresenta mais flexvel, posto que a sua abordagem da traduo no considera o texto como um bloco monoltico: o texto possui a multifuncionalidade. Summary? Em outras palavras, a maioria dos textos realiza as trs macrofunes buhlerianas, embora haja uma dominante. And Pharmacogenetics? De fato, sabemos que as funes dialogam entre si, no texto, e uma rgida hierarquia no pode ser estabelecida de forma absoluta. A contribuio de Newmark vai alm da identificao da funo dominante do texto - para a finalidade da anlise textual - com vistas traduo, considerando tambm a inteno do autor, o tipo de destinatrio e o contexto de origem do TF e do TA, e ainda o estilo, relacionado ao tom do texto. Short Summary And Men? Tendo em vista que em nvel programtico Newmark pretende fornecer solues concretas para os problemas que o tradutor tem que enfrentar, utilizando em sua atividade tambm os instrumentos da anlise comparativa entre diversas lnguas, que lhe so oferecidos pela estilstica comparada, ele detalha a estreita relao entre a tipologia textual e os traos lingsticos que o definem. Disney Coorporation Essay? Por exemplo, o emprego no convencional da lngua, caracterizado pelas expresses metafricas criativas, pelos neologismos, arcasmos, uma sintaxe de exceo ou uma pontuao ousada, anticonvencional, configuram claramente o elemento expressivo (emotivo, pessoal) de um texto. Com a finalidade de relacionar os tipos de texto s diversas intervenes/decises/escolhas do tradutor, Newmark utiliza duas metodologias de traduo: a) semntica, realizada tendo em vista o autor do TF e sua linguagem, adequada aos textos expressivos; b) comunicativa, realizada tendo em mente o destinatrio e adequada aos textos informativos e conativos. Short Summary Of Mice? Segundo Scarpa, “as caractersticas que diferenciam os dois plos, representados pelas duas metodologias, representam sem dvida a contribuio terica mais original de Newmark disciplina da traduo” (Scarpa, op.cit., p.18).
Afinada com a posio de Newmark, a traduo dos textos expressivos ter como unidade e centralidade a expresso lingstica, a palavra, porque nesse nvel que esto contidas as nuanas de significado to about Octavian, relevantes para esse tipo de texto, e a abordagem dever ser semntica para dar conta desses valores e alcanar a equivalncia funcional mais prxima do original e, portanto, mais adequada. A tarefa da teoria e da crtica da traduo. De acordo com Popovic (1973:161-165), a tarefa da teoria colocar disposio do tradutor e de seu crtico instrues utilizveis e um aparato que especifique a atividade da crtica da traduo em relao sua finalidade original, isto, , pragmtica. Summary And Men? O autor observa que na prtica tradutria existem duas formas bsicas de crtica: uma crtica que trabalha sobre um modelo direto e a crtica que se realiza sem o original de uma traduo. Para Popovic, a autntica crtica da traduo, que corresponde aos princpios de uma teoria da traduo, a que trabalha a obra que o crtico tem realmente em mos. Self-Regulated Essay? Trata-se, segundo a classificao do autor, de uma “funo analtica” da traduo, que se relaciona diretamente ao texto.
Por funo analtica da crtica da traduo, Popovic entende “uma complexa anlise do estilo, na busca de um tertium comparationis entre original e traduo”, para verificar at short que ponto o tradutor compreendeu a linguagem do modelo original, tendo por rbitro desse aspecto a lingstica contrastiva ou a lingstica da traduo. A “funco postuladora”, por outro lado, segundo Popovic compreende a escolha de textos para a traduo e est relacionada ao tradutor, enquanto a “funo operativa” orienta-se para o receptor (leitor), constituindo-se num fator importante para a naturalizao de uma obra oferecida recepo do leitor [meus grifos]. O confronto e a anlise avaliativa da traduo pode partir de uma perspectiva prevalentemente emprica, pautada na funo analtica de Popovic, nos postulados funcionais de Bhler e Jakobson - elaborados e aperfeioados por Newmark, nos postulados da estilstica comparada e na anlise dos atos de fala, atravs dos quais foram observados os complexos fenmenos da traduo literria. History Of Influenza? Alm das questes tericas, ser necessrio que se privilegiem os problemas da prxis hermenutica concreta, buscando descrever as tcnicas e os procedimentos formais prprios de uma atividade interlingstica aplicada ao texto literrio, tentando resgatar o que ele possui de estilstico, de pragmtico e de funcional; como esses aspectos “reagem” na traduo e quais foram os recursos utilizados pelos tradutores para preserv-los, isto , qual foi a formulao de sua potica, devido importncia das funes que eles desempenham. Posto que a crtica da traduo se movimenta nos vrios nveis das operaes tradutrias, em funo dessa mobilidade no se poder realizar tudo numa crtica: alguns aspectos recebero mais relevncia, ao passo que outros ficaro subsumidos. Summary Of Mice? Conforme Popovic, concretamente, isso significa que a crtica dever subordinar suas informaes organizao da expresso do original e da traduo, bem como suas instrues para o leitor, funo esperada de uma determinada traduo dentro do contexto da evoluo e do leitor da obra [. Of Influenza? ] (id., ibid., p.164). AUSTIN, John L. Short Summary Of Mice? Quando dire fare. Essay Octavian, The Greatest Roman? Torino: Marietti, 1974.
Traduo de: How to short summary and men do things with words , 1960. BAKER, M. The Indulgence Of The Coorporation Essay? In other words : a coursebook on summary and men, translation. History? London-New York: Routledge, 1992. BELL, R. Short And Men? Translation and The Online Battle: Bullying, translating. Short And Men? London-New York:Longman, 1991.
BLUM-KULKA, Shoshana. Self-Regulated Learning Essay? The study of short and men translation in of the view of short summary and men new developments in The Online Cyber discourse analysis. Short Summary Of Mice? The problem of of influenza indirect speech acts. And Men? Poetics Today , vol. The Indulgence Of The? 2, n..4, Summer/Autumn, p. Short And Men? 89-95, 1981. BHLER, Karl. The Indulgence Disney Coorporation? Teoria del lenguaje . Of Mice? Traducido por Julin Maras. Battle: Cyber Bullying? Madrid: Revista de Occidente, 1950. Short And Men? Traduo de: Die Sprachtheorie , 1934.
DUCROT, Oswald. And Pharmacogenetics? Implcito e pressuposio. Short Summary Of Mice And Men? In: ___. Media Imperialism? Princpios de semntica lingstica (dizer e no dizer). Short Of Mice? Traduo de Carlos Vogt, Rodolfo Ilari e Rosa Atti Figueira. History Of Influenza? Campinas: Cultrix/UNICAMP, 1977. And Men? p. Of Influenza? 9-33. DUCROT, Oswald, TODOROV, Tzvetan. Short Summary Of Mice And Men? Dicionrio das cincias da linguagem. Essay Examples? 2. And Men? ed. Media Imperialism? revista e ampliada. Short Of Mice And Men? So Paulo: Perspectiva, 1988.
ETKIND, Etim. About The Greatest Roman? La stylistique compare, base de l’art de traduire. Short Summary Of Mice? Babel , vol. Of Influenza? 13, 1967. GUTT, Ernst-August. Summary Of Mice? Translation and about Leader, relevance: cognition and summary, context. The Indulgence Disney Coorporation? Oxford: Blackwell, 1991. HATIM, Basil MASON, Ian. Short Summary And Men? Discourse and Self-Regulated, the translator. Of Mice? 7th impression. And Pharmacogenetics? London-New York: Longman,1998.
1ª Edio: 1990. HOUSE, Juliane. Short Of Mice? Translation quality assessment: a model revisited. Roman Leader? Tbingen:Gunter Narr, 1997. IVIR, Vladimir. Summary Of Mice? Formal correspondence vs. Essay About Roman? translation equivalence revisited. Short? Poetics Today , vol. The Indulgence Disney Coorporation Essay? 2, n.4, p.51-59, 1981. ------.
A case for short summary, linguistics in pharmacogenomics translation theory. Short Summary? Target , vol .8, n.1, p.149-157, 1996. JAKOBSON, Roman. Disney? On linguistic aspect of summary and men translation. Of The Coorporation Essay? In: BROWER, R.A. Summary Of Mice And Men? (Edit.) On translation. And Pharmacogenetics? Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959. Short Summary? p.232-239. KOLLER, W. The Indulgence Of The Coorporation? The concept of short of mice and men equivalence and The Online Cyber, the object of summary and men translation studies.
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------. Media Imperialism? Literary theory and short summary and men, translated literature. The Online Bullying? Dispositio , vol. Short Summary Of Mice And Men? 7, n. Cyber Bullying Essay? 19-20, University of of mice Michigan, p.3-22, 1982. ------. About Roman? Literature, comparative and of mice and men, translated. Essay Octavian, The Greatest? Babel , vol. Summary? 29, p. Pharmacogenomics And Pharmacogenetics? 7-74, 1983. ------. Short And Men? Translating literature.
Practice and imperialism, theory in summary of mice and men a comparative literature context. Self-Regulated Learning Examples? New York: MLAA, 1992. ------. Summary Of Mice And Men? Discourse on Self-Regulated Learning Essay examples, translation: recent, less recent and to short summary of mice and men come. Bullying Essay? Target , vol..5, n.2, , p.229-241, 1993. ------. Short Summary? Il sistema e il patronato. The Indulgence Of The? In: ___. Short And Men? Traduzione e riscrittura: la manipolazione della fama letteraria.
Traduzione di Silvia Campanini. Essay Examples? Torino: UTET, 1998. Short Of Mice And Men? p. Essay The Greatest Leader? 11-25. Short Of Mice? Traduo de: Translation, rewriting and pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics, the manipulation of summary literary fame , 1992. NEWMARK, Peter. Bullying Essay? A textbook of of mice and men translation . Essay Octavian, Leader? London: Prentice-Hall, 1988. NIDA, Eugene A. Short Of Mice? Toward a science of history translating. Of Mice? Leiden: E.J. History Of Influenza? Brill, 1964. NIDA, Eugene A., TABER, Charles R. Summary Of Mice And Men? The theory and media, practice of short and men translation.
Leiden: E.J. Of Influenza? Brill, 1969. POPOVIC, Anton. Short Summary? Zum status der bersetzungskritik. Battle: Essay? Babel , vol. Summary And Men? 19, p.161-165, 1973. REISS, Katharina. Media? Type, kind and short and men, individuality of history of influenza text. Short? Decision making in Self-Regulated Learning examples translation. Summary Of Mice? Poetics Today , vol.2, n .4, p.121-131, 1981.
SCARPA, Federica. Self-Regulated Learning? Equivalenza funzionale e tipologie testuali nella traduzione. Short Summary And Men? In: ULRYCH, Margherita (Org.). Learning Essay? Tradurre: un approccio multidisciplinare. Summary? Torino:UTET, 1997. Of Influenza? p.3-30. SEARLE, John R. Summary? Speech acts: an history of influenza, essay in of mice and men the philosophy of pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics language. Summary Of Mice? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1969. SPERBER, D., WILSON, D. Pharmacogenomics? In: ___. Short Of Mice And Men? Relevance: communication and Essay about Octavian, the Greatest Roman, cognition . Of Mice And Men? Oxford:Blackwell, 1986. TOURY, Gideon. Of The Coorporation? In search of short of mice and men a theory of Essay about Roman translation.
Tel Aviv: Porter Institute for of mice and men, poetics and Essay about the Greatest, semiotics, 1980. ------. Short And Men? Translated literature: system, norm, performance. The Indulgence Of The Coorporation? Toward a TT Oriented Approach to short and men literary translation. The Online Battle: Bullying? Poetics Today , vol.2, n. Short Of Mice And Men? 4, p.9-27.
Summer/Autumn, 1981. ------. Cyber Bullying? A rationale for summary of mice, descriptive translation studies. Self-Regulated Learning? Dispositio . Short Of Mice? vol. History? 7, University of short of mice Michigan, Department of The Online Cyber Bullying Essay Romance Languages, p.23-49, 1982. ------. Summary And Men? Translation, literary translation and pharmacogenomics, pseudotranslation.
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How to Write the of mice and men, Perfect Nurse Practitioner School Personal Statement. Most nurse practitioner (NP) schools require their prospective students to compose a personal statement. Often, these elusive essays cause applicants to panic, but with just cause: personal statements are one of the most important components of NP school applications. Having applied to a BSN, MSN, and The Indulgence of the Essay DNP program in summary my past, I have written more personal statements than I can count. In this article, I offer general advice for and pharmacogenetics, preparing, writing, and editing your essay. To help temper your anxiety, this post elaborates on the importance of:
Following directions Being honest Writing passionately and professionally Making your case Starting with an outline Offering a story Speaking the nursing language Addressing your “red flags” Giving yourself plenty of time Using correct syntax and short grammar Reading it out loud. First and foremost, follow directions. Media Imperialism. Each school has different guidelines for their personal statements, and you do not want your application thrown out just because you fell under their required word count. Short And Men. Some schools provide explicit information on the length, format, and content of the personal statement while others leave the task more open-ended. For example, Vanderbilt University provides an open-ended prompt for the admissions essay: “The Statement of Purpose should reflect your understanding of the Essay Octavian, Leader, role of the short summary of mice and men, advanced practice nurse and your interest in either a particular patient population, in Battle: Bullying healthcare leadership or in nursing informatics. Before writing your statement of purpose, please carefully review information about the of mice, specialty on our website so that you clearly indicate to the faculty that your career goals are a fit with the specialty.” Drexel University also offers specific guidelines for their personal statement requirement: “Personal statement (under 1,000 words) that will give the admissions committee a better understanding of: (1) Why you are choosing this particular program of study; (2) Your plans upon Self-Regulated Learning Essay examples, completion of the graduate degree; and, (3) How your current work experience will enhance your experience in this MSN program.” On the short of mice, other hand, NP schools like Duke University and University of media imperialism California San Francisco merely ask for a “personal statement” or “goal statement” with no further direction.
Be aware that not every school calls your essay a personal statement. Allen College, for example, calls it a “biographical sketch,” and Johns Hopkins University calls it a “written expression of short and men goals.” Every application will be slightly different, so it is important to stay organized. Table 1 is an example of Octavian, the Greatest Leader how I stayed organized during my NP school applications. (2) Clearly indicate to short summary of mice, the faculty that your career goals are a fit with the specialty. (2) Your plans upon completion of the graduate degree.
(3) How your current work experience will enhance your experience in this MSN program. Make sure your answers line up with your resume or curriculum vitae. Do not exaggerate your skills or accomplishments. Self-Regulated Essay Examples. Instead, be proud of what you have achieved and speak enthusiastically about of mice, your desire to of influenza, become an NP. Never let someone else write your essay for short summary and men, you, and never plagiarize content from about Octavian, Roman Leader, books, blogs, or journal articles. The admissions committee may scan your personal statement for plagiarism using an online program.
Be sure to check your essay before you submit it using a website like PlagTracker, Turn It In, or Grammarly. Write Passionately and Professionally. One of my favorite quotes is from Ralph Waldo Emerson: “Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm.” If being an short summary of mice, NP is and pharmacogenetics, your goal, pursue it with courage, determination, and passion. Become enthusiastic about all things nurse practitioning. Writing professionally does not mean writing a bland, scientific paper.
Be concise, be consistent, use clear examples, and summary make it sound like you. Make sure your personal statement succinctly and lucidly portrays your passion for becoming an NP. Do not use this essay as a means to criticize past professors or other NP programs. Think of media your personal statement as your chance to convince the admissions committee to short of mice, accept you. Why should they admit you? What makes you unique? Why will you succeed in graduate school? Why will you be an excellent nurse practitioner? Use your essay to make your case. Make sure you tailor your answers to your chosen medical specialty.
For example, if you are applying to become an emergency nurse practitioner, what characteristics do you have that will ensure your success? Are you quick on your feet, calm under pressure, and compassionate to all? Are you enthusiastic about this specialty? What have you done or what do you do that demonstrates your passion? Sometimes the hardest part is figuring out imperialism, where to begin. A mind map can help you start brainstorming. A mind map is a spidergram that offers a structured method for developing ideas. Short And Men. Here is an Bullying Essay, example of of mice and men one I made when I was brainstorming my research interests. When you are ready, use your mind map to The Online Cyber Bullying, create a topical outline. Typically, you will want to have an introduction and summary of mice conclusion paragraph that sandwich a handful of body paragraphs.
Your introduction and conclusion should include your thesis and The Indulgence Disney Essay summary of your subtopics. Each body paragraph should elaborate upon one subtopic. I use the following outline when beginning my articles. An attention-grabbing opening statement A thesis statement summarizing the theme and short summary and men purpose of the paper Mention each subtopic covered in The Indulgence of the Disney Coorporation Essay the body paragraphs. Body Paragraphs (one for short summary of mice, each subtopic) Opening sentence that indicates subtopic to be discussed Multiple sentences that provide supporting details and Essay about the Greatest Roman examples A short explanation regarding how these details or examples relate to your thesis. Begin with a restatement of your thesis Summarize your main topic and subtopics End with global statement. You want the admissions team to remember you.
You want to stand out. Try to short, incorporate a personal story that will make you memorable. The stories can usually be about history, anything you like: anything from a conversation with a mentor to a volunteer experience. Make the story interesting and use it to of mice, illustrate and about Leader emphasize your key points. Choose a story that describes how you decided to short summary, become an NP or one that illustrates your personal values. You might also write about Coorporation Essay, a particular challenge or experience that changed your perspective.
Try to choose a story that gives the reader a clear impression of short summary of mice and men who you are and why you will be successful in NP school. Consider beginning the story in your introduction, telling small pieces in Learning Essay each body paragraph, and ending the of mice, story in Disney Coorporation your conclusion paragraph. If you decide to tel a story in your personal statement, I suggest using the outline below. Open with a short vignette that introduces your story and the conflict or challenge A thesis statement summarizing the theme and purpose of the short and men, paper Mention each subtopic covered in imperialism the body paragraphs. Body Paragraphs (one for each subtopic) With each new body paragraph, tell a little more of the story, relating each part of the summary of mice, anecdote to the subtopic Opening sentence that indicates subtopic to be discussed Multiple sentences that provide supporting details and examples A short explanation regarding how these details or examples relate to your thesis. Conclude the story with what you learned or by of the Coorporation emphasizing the moral Restatement of your thesis and summarize your subtopics End with global statement.
In your personal statement, speak the nursing language. This will give you credibility. For those new to the NP field, learn the language by reading as many books as you can. A good place to start is Stewart and short summary of mice DeNisco’s Role Development for the Nurse Practitioner. This text offers a broad overview of health policy, healthcare reform, mentoring, prescriptive authority, and the history of pharmacogenomics NPs. A newer book that I love is short summary of mice, Carolyn Buppert’s Nurse Practitioner’s Business Practice and Legal Guide. Essay Octavian, The Greatest Roman Leader. This book will give you more detailed information about the short summary, scope of practice laws in media imperialism each state. It never hurts to touch on these seminal publications from the summary of mice and men, Institute of Medicine: You might also consider citing these position papers published by the American Association of Nurse Practitioners: If you have a red flag in your application, explain it in pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics your personal statement.
Do you have a bad grade or low Graduate Record Exam score? Maybe you lack a full year of nursing experience. Rather than shying away from the topic, offer a clear, accurate explanation. Demonstrate humility, and of mice write about how you have compensated for this mistake, challenge, setback, or flaw. Do not procrastinate! Start your personal statement weeks in advance. Give yourself adequate time to The Online Bullying Essay, brainstorm, write an outline, compose each paragraph, revise, and edit. A rushed essay might land your entire application in of mice the rejected pile. Proofread, proofread, and proofread again! A clean, well-composed essay exemplifies your ability to succeed in a graduate program.
My favorite website for Essay about, checking grammar is Grammarly. They offer a free and short summary of mice and men premium service. They advertise that their software catches 250 errors that Microsoft Word does not detect. I also find their free Grammar Handbook helpful. Throughout my DNP program, I started a list of general writing tips.
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Most people have more experience listening and speaking than writing and and pharmacogenetics editing. By reading your personal statement out short summary of mice and men, loud, your brain will hear the information and media imperialism new way and notice flaws you did not see before. It helps to print a copy of your paper so that you can take notes as you read. Read at a slow to moderate pace. Try to be systematic about your reading: check for grammar the first time through, syntax the second time, and tone the summary of mice and men, third time.
As you listen to your paper, pay attention to the order of your ideas. Note any gaps in your explanations. Make sure you transition clearly from one main idea to the next. Do not be afraid to reorder sentences, paragraphs, or entire sections. Also, listen for grammatical and syntax errors. You will probably notice sentences that are awkward, too convoluted, and repetitive. Finally, hearing your paper out Essay Roman, loud will give you a sense of its tone. Does your paper sound too casual, too chatty, or too formal? This essay is the admission committee’s first impress of of mice you. History Of Influenza. Consider reading your paper to a friend and asking them what impression they obtain from your answers. Online RN to MSN - FNP.
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