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Things fall apart twins

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brian shahwan resume 2017-09-21 Select Cmmt. 2017-10-03 Non Fake News. Debunking the things twins, myths about weapons deliveries to the Ukraine. This article was written for the Unz Review. The latest news craze is about the possible delivery of US anti-tank weapons (the FMG-148 Javelin is often mentioned) to of dna in protein, the Nazi junta in Kiev. These stories typically include a discussion of things fall apart, defensive vs offensive and lethal vs non-lethal weapons and always display a child-like belief in the existence of some magic technology which would perform miracles on the battlefield. None of. Syrian War Report August 10, 2017: Army Repels ISIS Attack, Inflicts Large Casualties To Terrorists. https://southfront.org/syrian-war-report-august-10-2017-army-repels-isis-attack-inflicts-large-casualties-to-terrorists/ If youre able, and if you like our content and dulce et decorum est poem approach, please support the project. Twins. Our work wouldnt be possible without your help: PayPal: southfront@list.ru or via: http://southfront.org/donate/ or via: https://www.patreon.com/southfront Voiceover by Harold Hoover Government forces have repelled a large-scale ISIS advance in the area of Humaymah and the T2 pumping station at the Syrian-Iraqi border. The advance started on roles synthesis Wednesday with an attack by ISIS suicide bombers and things fall twins 5 vehicle-borne improvised explosive.

Macron, Ike Turner and the psychology of marrying your alleged rapist. by Ramin Mazaheri It seems as if Americas media spends far more time speculating about Donalds Trumps psychological issues than discussing anything which could actually help the domain definition, average household be able to afford a new car, which a new study reveals the things apart, average family can no longer do. (FYI: I bought my used car entirely with 1- and 2-euro coins I saved up over 6 years, so that should tell. Erik Prince offers Pentagon a way out of Afghanistan. by Baaz On Monday, the US Secretary of State Rex Tillerson spoke about the Trump administrations views on the war in Afghanistan. Tillerson said: Weve had now three sessions within the National Security Council exploring a full range of options. And when I say a full range of options, I mean the entire landscape I think this is reflective of the Essay in Australia, deliberations that we want to undertake. The President. by things, Pepe Escobar for the Asia Times Alarm bells ringing as rampant speculation breaks out over Property in Australia Pyongyang#8217;s #8216;possible#8217; miniaturized nuclear warheads. Things Fall Twins. Beware the domain, dogs of war. The same intel folks who brought to you babies pulled from apart incubators by evil Iraqis as well as non-existent WMDs are now peddling the happy childhood, notion that North Korea has produced a miniaturized nuclear warhead able to fit its recently tested ICBM. Thats the core. Lessons Of Syria: Russia Creates Super Light Motorized Infantry.

https://southfront.org/lessons-of-syria-russia-creates-super-light-motorized-infantry/ Written and things fall apart twins produced by SF Team: J.Hawk, Daniel Deiss, Edwin Watson; Voiceover by Oleg Maslov If youre able, and on Copyright if you like our content and approach, please support the project. Our work wouldnt be possible without your help: PayPal: southfront@list.ru or via: http://southfront.org/donate/ or via: https://www.patreon.com/southfront One of the iconic weapons of the Russian Civil War was the tachankaa light wheeled carriage pulled by a team of horses and things mounting a Maxim heavy. Syria #038; Iraq War Report August 9, 2017: Tensions Grow As US-led Coalition Strikes PMU In Border Area. https://southfront.org/syria-iraq-war-report-august-9-2017-tensions-grow-as-us-led-coalition-strikes-pmu-in-border-area/ If youre able, and if you like our content and approach, please support the project. Dulce. Our work wouldnt be possible without your help: PayPal: southfront@list.ru or via: http://southfront.org/donate/ or via: https://www.patreon.com/southfront Syrian Arab Army (SAA) Tiger Forces and tribal forces fighters have liberated Jabir, Numaysah, Khamisiyah and Wadi Susah near the important ISIS-held town of Maadan in the province of things apart twins, Raqqah. The government forces advanced amid the ongoing fighting in the area of definition, Sukhna. North Korea Killer Sanctions Imposed by the Foremost Institution of Peace and Justice the UN Security Council. by Peter Koenig As reported by CNN, The United Nations Security Council on Saturday [5 August 2017] passed a resolution imposing new sanctions on apart North Korea for its continued intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) testing and violations of UN resolutions. Happy. With 15 votes in favor, Resolution 2371 was passed unanimously. The resolution targets North Korea#8217;s primary exports, including coal, iron, iron ore, lead, lead ore and seafood. Apart. The sanctions also target. Moveable Feast Cafe 2017/08/09 #8230; Open Thread.

2017/08/09 10:30:01Welcome to the #8216;Moveable Feast Cafe#8217;. The #8216;Moveable Feast#8217; is an open thread where readers can post wide ranging observations, articles, rants, off topic and have animate discussions of the Essay, issues of the day. The #8216;Moveable Feast Cafe#8217; will have two new open threads each week. The Saker stated moderation policy will apply eg #8216;no caps#8217;, no obscenity #8230; etc to all post. The Cafe is now open for. Fall Apart. Saturday Live Stream Announcement: Interview With The Saker, Discussion Of US-Russian Relations. Start: 20:00 CEST.

SouthFront announcement: SATURDAY LIVE STREAM START: 20:00 CEST TOPIC: Interview with The Saker (please, visit his blog, TheSaker.is) on the US-Russia relations and other issues of the international agenda. The Saker is the roles of dna synthesis, friend and one of the key partners of SouthFront. Hes a well-known military and things fall twins geo-political analyst and a regular contributor to The Unz Review (Unz.com). Dear friends, you can ask questions about the live stream topics and other issues related to domain, SF. The Truth About the Google #8216;Diversity#8217; Memo. Syrian War Report August 8, 2017: ISIS Deploys Large Reinforcements, Attempts Retake Sukhna. https://southfront.org/syrian-war-report-august-8-2017-isis-deploys-large-reinforcements-attempts-retake-sukhna/ If youre able, and if you like our content and things fall twins approach, please support the synthesis, project. Our work wouldnt be possible without your help: PayPal: southfront@list.ru or via: http://southfront.org/donate/ or via: https://www.patreon.com/southfront Voiceover by Harold Hoover ISIS has reportedly deployed large reinforcements, including experienced infantry and technicals, from the terrorist groups strong points in the eastern Salamiyah countryside in order to retake the strategic town of Sukhna from the Syrian Arab Army (SAA) and its. Things Fall Apart. Syrian War Report August 7, 2017: Sukhna Liberated, Army Continues Advance. https://southfront.org/syrian-war-report-august-7-2017-sukhna-liberated-army-continues-advance/ If youre able, and if you like our content and in protein approach, please support the project. Our work wouldnt be possible without your help: PayPal: southfront@list.ru or via: http://southfront.org/donate/ or via: https://www.patreon.com/southfront Last weekend, Syrian government forces liberated the strategic town of Sukhna in things fall twins the province of Homs. The town located 110km from the city of Deir Ezzor had been one of the key ISIS strongholds lying at the root of the ISIS defense in. 8 Months in Ukraine (Euromaidan MH17) Dear friends, I am sharing with you a video which is a #8220;witness to history#8221;, a day by day and Essay on Copyright and Intellectual punch by punch account of of crucial time period for the Ukraine from November 20th, 2013 to July 17th 2014.

This is things apart twins a long video (over five hours), but I recommend you download it a keep it in your archives, just in case it is deleted by Youtube. Here are. Dulce. Jacksonville, Mayo Clinic, natural/traditional meds, etc. (collective reply) Dear friends, WOW! I did not expect such a deluge of email and, frankly, such a tsunami of advice. Apart. So, first and foremost, THANK YOU to all of you for your kindness and concern!! In fact, I got so many emails and comments that I cannot reply to all of them one by one (even though I DID read every one of them very carefully). So I have decided on. Moveable Feast Cafe 2017/08/05 #8230; Open Thread. 2017/08/05 23:00:01Welcome to the #8216;Moveable Feast Cafe#8217;. On Copyright Property. The #8216;Moveable Feast#8217; is an fall twins, open thread where readers can post wide ranging observations, articles, rants, off topic and have animate discussions of the issues of the day.

The #8216;Moveable Feast Cafe#8217; will have two new open threads each week. The Saker stated moderation policy will apply eg #8216;no caps#8217;, no obscenity #8230; etc to all post. The Cafe is now open for. Saker appeal to cognitive domain, the community a place to stay in/near Jacksonville, Florida. Dear friends, I am having some chronic pain issues which will require me to spend 5-8 days in Jacksonville, FL, in order to fall, run a number of diagnostic tests and hopefully get a treatment at and Intellectual in Australia the local Mayo Clinic. I will be honest and immediately admit that my trust level in modern medicine is pretty close to zero, but these guys are supposed to things fall apart, be better than the rest and. Essay. Syrian War Report August 4, 2017: Army, SDF Boost Cooperation, Set Up Joint Operations Room. https://southfront.org/syrian-war-report-august-4-2017-army-sdf-boost-cooperation-set-up-joint-operations-room/ If youre able, and if you like our content and approach, please support the things twins, project. Our work wouldnt be possible without your help: PayPal: southfront@list.ru or via: http://southfront.org/donate/ or via: https://www.patreon.com/southfront Modern 9K333 Verba man-portable air-defense systems (MANPADs) have been spotted at positions of the Russian military servicemen in dulce et decorum the Eastern Ghouta region near Damascus. The MANPADs were reportedly deployed to protect checkpoints and observation posts established by the Russians from DIY combat drones. The Ron Paul Institute warns that HR 3364 contains provisions which directly threatens us all. by Daniel McAdams for fall apart twins, the Ron Paul Institute Late this afternoon the Essay in Australia, US House of Representatives overwhelmingly passed HR 3364, the #8220;Countering Americas Adversaries Through Sanctions Act.#8221; The vote was 419-3, with the things fall apart, only nays coming from Republicans Justin Amash (R-MI), John Duncan (R-TN), and dulce Thomas Massie (R-KY). The bill adds additional sanctions on Russia as punishment for the as-yet-unproven claims that Moscow somehow interfered in US elections to things fall apart twins, help.

The end of the wars on the cheap for dulce et decorum, the United States. Things. This analysis was written for the Unz Review. With the Good Essay, Neocon coup against things fall apart twins, Trump now completed (at least in its main objective, that is the Choosing: Good, neutralization of Trump, the subsidiary objective, impeaching Trump and removing him from office remains something for the future) the things fall apart, world has to deal, yet again, with a very dangerous situation: the AngloZionist Empire is on a rapid decline, but the Neocons are back in power. Scan QR code below to in protein synthesis, Donate Bitcoin to Saker. For other options such as bank wires, checks, cash or Amazon.com gift cards , please click here. Fall Apart. The Neocons are pushing the and Intellectual Property in Australia, USA and the rest of the world towards a dangerous crisis. Sanctions, smoke and mirrors from a kindergarten on fall apart twins LSD. The end of the on Copyright, wars on things apart twins the cheap for the United States. Russian special forces repel a US-planned attack in Syria, denounce the USA and issue a stark warning.

Very dangerous escalation in Syria. An Android App has been developed by one of our supporters. It is available for Choosing: Good, download and install by things fall, clicking on the Google Play Store Badge above.

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Snatch Theft Essays and Research Papers. Snatch Thieves Snatch theft is a criminal act of forcefully stealing from a pedestrian's person while employing . rob-and-run tactics. It is things fall apart twins, typical for two thieves to work together and ride a moped to make theft and happy birthday escape easier. A person steers the vehicle while another does the act of theft itself. However, some snatch thieves work alone or do not use a motorcycle to rob. A growing problem in Malaysia, some instances of snatch theft have caused fatalities, when the things twins person holding onto the handbag. All That You Can't Leave Behind , Crime , Larceny 1413 Words | 3 Pages. Snatch theft is becoming a serious issue nowadays. The snatch thieves crime has become from dulce est poem, bad to worst in . Malaysia. The local media, especially the press, has been replete with reports of crime and apart twins violence in our beloved country. There have been many reports of snatch thefts which has given a great impact to the society.

Police statistics on est poem, these crimes indicate that they are on the rise. Things Fall Apart Twins? Therefore, there is a sense of anxiety, even panic and cognitive fear in the air. Thus, we have to take action in avoid. Automobile , Crime , Crimes 522 Words | 2 Pages. Rosli Mohd Saad, who died in his attempt to catch a snatch thief, was a brave man who was carrying out his duty as a caring citizen, said . Apart Twins? Inspector General of Police Tan Sri Mohd Bakri Omar.It is a pity that he lost his life.

I am saddened by the news, he added. Happy? Bakri said people must not risk life and limb when making a citizen's arrest. Rather, they should weigh the fall situation before attempting to make an arrest. Personal safety, above all, should not be jeopardized, he advised. Overzealousness. Crime , Criminal law , Democratic Action Party 533 Words | 3 Pages. The Causes of Snatch Theft Cases in Malaysia Most of the people who involve in snatch theft cases . Roles? are adolescents.

They are probably poorly educated from their parents or even have a broken family. Things Fall Apart Twins? Parents play the most important role in Essay “Out, Out” and Mid-Term, character building and personality development of their children. In the things fall age of information technology and globalization, they are always busy working until they forgot their true responsibility of educating and teaching children to be a perfect- educated human. Causality , Crime , Religion 692 Words | 2 Pages. Snatch Thief One day you are at a busy shopping centre and you hear a commotion.

A man is running towards you with a ladys handbag. He is . obviously a snatch thief. Est Poem? Complete an essay relating what happened. ------------------------------------------------- Help me, a guy snatched my handbag! shrieked an things apart twins, old lady who is in her sixties. Her piecing shrill cry caught my attention. Turning around, I saw a huge, burly man running towards me at breakneck speed, with a red leather handbag in. Constable , Dennis Farina , Hand 452 Words | 2 Pages. Snatch Theft Snatch theft is dulce, becoming a serious issue nowadays.

During the months of June and July . 2004, the local media, especially the apart press, have been replete with reports of crime and violence in Malaysia. There have been many reports of snatch thefts which has given a great impact to the society. Police statistics on or Evil Essay, these crimes indicate that they are on the rise. Therefore, there is a sense of anxiety, even panic and fear in the air. The seriousness of this crime can be proven when on. Crime , Criminal law , Dishonesty 3339 Words | 9 Pages. out a shrill shriek which pierced through the air, hence bringing the robbery to the attention of the throng of marketers. By then, the snatch . thief was making a beeline for the exit!

Several men gave chase and were soon hot on the snatch thiefs heels. An unexpected scene unfolded next as flying vegetables were seen zipping across the air, pelting at the snatch thief! It was striking him on his head and body. He cried out in pain as the missiles continued to rain on him. Finally, a gigantic cabbage. Ankle , Eye color , Middle age 939 Words | 3 Pages. Snatch Guy Ritchie, 2000 Snatch is classified under the things Gangster genre. The film uses the codes and Essay about Compare “Out, Out” conventions of fall twins this . genre which creates meaning for its audiences. As in all films the first ten minutes are the key in setting up the audiences expectations and Choosing: or Evil also to inform its viewers of information needed to understand the rest of the film. By the genre one has narrative expectations due to the stereotypes of genre films, in this case it might be, gunfights, scams and money making schemes. Character , Fiction , Film 929 Words | 3 Pages.

3 2.0 Definitions of things fall twins topic 5 3.0 LITERATURE REVIEW. 6 Table 1: Comparison of crime rate between year 2011 and 2012 (adopted from friend, Portal Rasmi Polis Diraja . Malaysia) 6 Table 2: Snatch theft cases reported (Adopted from apart twins, The Star: Victims speak of traumatic experiences) 7 3.1 CAUSES OF SNATCH THEFT 8 3.2 EFFECT OF SNATCH THEFT 9 6.1 Effect to society 9 6.2 Effect to our country 10 6.3 Effect to the victim 11 7 SOLUTION 12 7.1 Stay in groups. 12 7.2 Use the Citizens Safety Projects. 12 7.3 Learn what. Crime , Crime prevention , Criminal law 3495 Words | 15 Pages. Straits Times (Used by permission) By : Fadhal A. Ghani and Minderjeet Kaur KUALA LUMPUR: The Road Transport Department wants the Essay power to arrest Mat . Rempit who have struck fear in things fall twins, the hearts of Choosing: Good Malaysians with their recent involvement in snatch thefts . Things Apart Twins? It is dulce, also seeking to things fall twins change the law to cane the illegal racers whose actions have also led to the eventual death of Choosing: Good victims. But such punishment is not all that the fall twins department, which has been dogged for years by Mat Rempit, wants.

It is also . Crime , Crimes , Criminal law 633 Words | 2 Pages. in accordance with the requirements of the MC100 assignment 2. This business report is considered for cognitive domain definition, every woman to increase their handbag safety, can . prevent snatch thief cases in Malaysia. In our report, we describe our products and services clearly, and about 5 product features, which can explain all the users how it prevent the snatch thief. Also we have designed over 50 styles of our products, it about design, colour, shapes and fall apart twins sizes, you can choose one which you like. Dulce? You can go to things fall apart twins our official.

Handbag , Market , Marketing 4791 Words | 16 Pages. Barrels ( commonly referred to as Lock, Stock. Then, not two years later, Ritchie directed his second successful film, Snatch , which grossed . eighty three and a half million US dollars, around four times as much as Lock, Stock. Ritchie has gone on to direct blockbuster movies such as Revolver, RockNRolla and the Sherlock Holmes series. Lock, Stock and Two Smoking Barrels and on Copyright in Australia Snatch , will be the films evaluated. The two films known for making Ritchies career what it is today. These two films share.

Benicio del Toro , Film , Gangster films 1158 Words | 3 Pages. has to be an action, comedy, or horror movie for apart, me. Second, the birthday movie itself has to contain a plot worth watching. To further elaborate on things, the subject, here . are my favorite 5 movies. Which of course is dulce et decorum, The Matrix, Fight Club, Saw 2, Half Baked, and things fall Snatch . The Matrix is a movie about a computer hacker Thomas Anderson has lived a relatively ordinary life. But to his intelligence he thinks is in and Intellectual, the year 1999, that is until he is contacted by the enigmatic Morpheus who leads him into the real world.

Brad Pitt , Cannabis , Fight Club 1298 Words | 3 Pages. crimes like robbery and snatch theft by underpaid foreign workers. According the the line graph, every year the number of . crimes increases by things fall about 200 cases which is cognitive definition, 1535 in fall apart twins, 2006, 1780 in Good or Evil, 2007 to 1926 in 2008). These crimes can be divided into petty crimes including robbery and snatch thef and things fall hardcore crimes like rape and Good or Evil murder. Based on the bar graph, the highest incidence of crime is robbery that rose from 65 in 2006 to fall 75 cases in 2008. This is followed by et decorum est poem snatch thefts from 15 in 2006 to 18. Crime , Criminology , Essay 2992 Words | 10 Pages. Describe an Unforgettable Incident That You Saw on Your Way Home from School. was a passenger behind the motorcyclist and fall twins they were heading for a lady, who was walking on the pavement at the side of the road.

The motorcyclist then . stopped beside the Good Essay lady. After dismounting from the motorcycle, the pillion rider tried to snatch the lady's handbag but she resisted. Feeling furious, he took out a knife and brandished it at her. On seeing the things apart knife, the lady was scared and apprehensive of getting hurt. Happy Friend? Having no alternative, she let the fall apart mugger have her handbag. After getting. Automobile , Crime , Motorcycle 475 Words | 2 Pages. Explain the reasoning behind employee theft . Employee theft could be a result of many issues that arise at the place of . employment. Low morale at the workplace is a major reason why businesses suffer from low production and stealing at the workplace, especially if the employee feels that the business or company has wronged or mistreated them in some way.

Another reason would be if the employee feels that they are underpaid or under-appreciated for roles of dna, their performance. In sales, lack of twins control. Capitalism , Causality , Employment 971 Words | 3 Pages. fraud. Ladies and Gentleman My Name Is Shay Im here to discuss an important matter in todays Society. Identity theft . With A Show Of Hands . How Many Of You Are Aware Of what on Your Current Credit Report?

With another show of hands how many people have their social sercity card on them now? Well guess what you are increasing your chance of becoming a victim of identity theft . Identity theft is Choosing: Good Essay, when a thief steals your personal information for self-gain. SLIDE SHOW: According to the FTC (federal trade. Credit card , Credit card fraud , Credit history 1417 Words | 4 Pages. I. Outline-Retail theft A. Fall Twins? Introduction Excuse me, sir/madam can I check . Synthesis? your bag please? Lifting, jacking, racking, nicking, boosting and Five finger discount, are some of the slang terms used for retail theft (also commonly known as shoplifting). Shoplifting is theft of goods from apart, a retail establishment. Est Poem? It is twins, one of the most common property crimes dealt with by police and Essay about Compare and Mid-Term Break courts. In the next few minutes, I. Electronic article surveillance , Package pilferage , Property crime 933 Words | 3 Pages.

Identity Theft Identity theft is one of the largest crimes committed in The United States each year. Things Fall? Identity . theft is roles in protein synthesis, a form of stealing someone's identity in which someone pretends to be someone else by assuming that person's identity, typically in order to access resources or obtain credit and other benefits in that person's name. The victim of identity theft can suffer adverse consequences if they are held accountable for the perpetrator's actions. Identity theft occurs when someone uses another's. Credit card fraud , Crimes , Fraud 900 Words | 3 Pages. such as pornography is censored. I dont think it is things twins, a good idea for an adult to go to these sights because it influences temptation, but adults should be . able to make the right decision. Essay? Even though statistics show that a high percentage of adults theft . I am happy to say that I have not shop lifted since I have been caught and have been confronted to steel and simply and easily said I don't steal anymore. I am proud of my accomplishment and share my knowledge with my friends to change their minds.

Economy of the United States , Electronic article surveillance , Security 1621 Words | 4 Pages. ? Identity theft and identity fraud are terms used to refer to all types of crime in which someone wrongfully obtains and uses another . Fall Twins? person's personal data in some way that involves fraud or deception, typically for economic gain. (The United States Department of Justce)In todays world where people are very dependent on happy birthday friend, internet and technology, identity theft has become a major issue for things, both consumers and business. Internet became a convenient, easy, and quick solution to everything starting. Credit card fraud , Crimes , Federal Trade Commission 1277 Words | 6 Pages. Introduction There is currently a huge growing number of criminals that now do greater and more widespread damage to Good or Evil Essay their victims without ever meeting . them. Identity theft surfaced in fall apart twins, the early 1990s and turned peoples everyday transactions into a data gathering game. Bits of childhood friend personal information such as bankcards, credit card accounts, income, social security numbers or just someone name, address, and phone numbers are now collected and could be used illegally by these individuals without anyone's. Computer security , Credit card fraud , Fair Credit Reporting Act 1364 Words | 4 Pages. | Identity Theft | [Type the document subtitle] | ENG/102July 7 , 2013 | | | | The Federal government should pass a law . that jails identity theft offenders with a minimum jail time due to the rising percentage of identity theft in America. Identity theft is defined as when someone uses another individuals personally identifying information without that persons permission, to commit fraud or other crimes.

There are many different types of identity that are stolen every day. Credit card , Credit card fraud , Fair Credit Reporting Act 1805 Words | 5 Pages. ? Identity Theft Imagine waking up from a knock on your front door, it is the police. You are under arrest for credit card fraud. Whats . Fall Apart Twins? happening? Did you commit the fraudulent act? No, so why are you being arrested? Well let me answer that, you are under arrest for cognitive domain definition, a crime you did not commit because someone stole your identity. It happens more often than people like to apart twins believe. Birthday Friend? Furthermore, I will be telling you how your identity can be stolen, how you can try to apart avoid it, and how you can repair. Credit card , Credit card fraud , Credit history 816 Words | 5 Pages.

Employee Theft (Research Paper) Antonio Childress Baker College MGT 212: Section 02570 C. Delbridge November 27, 2012 . EMPLOYEE THEFT Employee theft is a problem of considerable size for many companies. €Out,? Many corporate security experts estimate that 25 to 40 percent of all employees steal from their employers, and the U.S. Things? Department of Commerce (DOC) estimates that employee theft of cash, property, and merchandise may cost American businesses as much as $50 billion on. Business , Employment , Fraud 1999 Words | 6 Pages. Identity theft is a term used to refer to all types of crime in in protein synthesis, which someone wrongfully obtains and uses another person's personal data in . some way that involves fraud or deception, typically for economic gain. Unlike your fingerprints, which are unique to you and cannot be given to someone else for their use, your personal data especially your Social Security number, your bank account or credit card number, your telephone calling card number, and other valuable identifying data can be used. Credit card , Credit card fraud , Crimes 1693 Words | 5 Pages. Identity Theft People must be vigilant in protecting their identities this is the argument that the police department uses to be able . to get personal information of apart twins people from their cellphones. Unfortunately, as long as identity theft is a profitable venture, it will not disappear. The only way consumers and businesses can deal with it is to cognitive domain definition learn how to prevent it and then take those preventative measures.

The most important action anyone can take to prevent against identity theft is to be. Credit card , Credit card fraud , Fair Credit Reporting Act 1418 Words | 5 Pages. ? Identity theft is a major crime that happens to things apart twins millions of dulce est poem people every year. People whose identities have been stolen can spend months . and years trying to clean up the mess the thieves have made of a good name and fall twins credit record. There are many different types of identity theft and ways to deal with it.

Identity theft is very serious and stolen identities are used to commit many other crimes. Some of the specific types of identity theft besides personal identity theft , include tax related. Credit card , Credit card fraud , Fair Credit Reporting Act 2601 Words | 7 Pages. Of the many crimes that are present in synthesis, this day and age, one that not only vandalizes the things apart twins property, but as well as historical background is that of art . Choosing: Good Essay? theft . A crime that has taken away the sanctity of churches as well as many other religious and historical sites. Thefts have ranged from WWII (World War II) to the times of the Holocaust.

Of the items that were taken from the churches, relics were items of great priority. These items not only things had great value to the churches they were stolen from. Art theft , Bouncer , Looted art 1769 Words | 5 Pages. and fashions of the time. Talk about art theft significance in painting, sculptures, maybe film industry in et decorum, Western and non-Western . civilizations.

The theft of twins art is an old crime. Archaeological investigation has revealed court records dating to Essay Egypt's 20th Dynasty in which workers were convicted of robbing tombs in the Valley of Kings. In another instance, the apart mayor of Essay Break Western Thebes and several local officials were prosecuted for tomb robbery. The theft of fall apart twins art is often controversial. The removal. Art crime , Art theft , British Museum 950 Words | 3 Pages. ?Case Analysis Online Piracy Jaywalking or Theft Justifying what is cognitive definition, right or wrong when trying to things apart explain intellectual property rights is . a difficult task.

Those who become advocates for strong IP (intellectual property) protections underline that technological (such as in our case video game duplication) innovations take extensive energy and skill sets in cognitive domain, order to apart twins create; however, they are very easy to dulce copy. Therefore replicating material suppresses innovation. Then there are those who. Copyright , Copyright infringement , Customer service 1268 Words | 5 Pages. The culprit just thinks hes getting a product for things fall twins, free and doesnt know what hes actually doing to himself and the community. Dulce? Negative effects of things apart twins . shoplifting effect business owners, business customers, teenagers, and society as a whole. When a theft from any business occurs, it is happy birthday childhood friend, harmful to everyone. The effects of things apart twins shoplifting cost United States businesses approximately six billion dollars every year. Essay About €Out, Out” And Mid-Term Break? About one out of every three businesses fails because of the effects of shoplifting. In this. Electronic article surveillance , Security , Security guard 1134 Words | 3 Pages.

Identity theft is things fall twins, a common crime in America. Roles Of Dna In Protein? As many as ten million people a year are victimized by identity thieves. Identity . Things Apart Twins? theft occurs when someone uses your personally identifying information, like your name, Social security number, or credit card number without your permission. Or Evil Essay? It is very wrong of a person to steal someones identity, yet it happens all the time to people you know, or see surrounding you. It could be happening to you at this very moment. Many people discover it soon and can. Credit card fraud , Crime , Crimes 875 Words | 3 Pages. Theft by Katherine Anne Porter: Analysis.

? Theft by Katherine Anne Porter Follow 10 Members Following Summary Themes Analysis More ? Theft by Katherine Anne Porter . Fall Twins? Analysis Style and Technique (Comprehensive Guide to Short Stories, Critical Edition) print Print document PDF list Cite link Link Theft is a unique short story in the Porter canon for several reasons. It is the first effort at incorporating autobiographical elements into her work. Porter developed an domain, intense relationship with Matthew Josephson, her literary mentor and. Katherine Anne Porter , Larceny , Porter five forces analysis 1550 Words | 5 Pages. Motion to things Quash Qualified Theft/Distinction from Carnapping. Philippines REGIONAL TRIAL COURT xxxxx Judicial Region Branch xxxx Cauayan City, Isabela THE PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, . Plaintiff, Criminal Case No. xxxxx For: QUALIFIED THEFT -versus- MAxxxxxxxx Accused. x--------------------------------------x MOTION TO QUASH COMES NOW, the accused through. Automobile , Crime , Criminal law 2115 Words | 7 Pages. the Study Theft is the unlawful taking of belongings of others, it comprises of of dna in protein synthesis burglary, shoplifting, and break-ins.

Theft is things apart twins, . an indecent activity which shows how unethical the childhood person is, but unfortunately its presence has been there in our society for a long time. Even the younger generations of things apart twins our society are occupied in stealing which signifies a terrifying future for our country in the coming years, there are so many television news regarding teenagers being engaged in theft which shows. Baseball , Baseball statistics , Caught stealing 3697 Words | 11 Pages. Identity Theft in College Students. will never happen to of dna me. When it comes to identity theft , it can happen to anyone. It happens very often to college students.

College students . are a major target to identity theft and need to be aware of their risk. Students need to understand how to prevent identity theft and handle it if it occurs. The number one target for fall, identity theft , college students must be aware of their options when dealing with the constant threat of dulce et decorum identity theft , and things fall twins know what they can do if victimized. College. Credit card fraud , Crimes , Fraud 1148 Words | 4 Pages. Larceny and Abduction: an Analysis of How Theft is Developing at a Dangerous Rate.

Analysis of How Theft is dulce, Developing at a Dangerous Rate Theft has been a major issue since the beginning of apart interactions . among different groups of people. Starting from simple items like food, clothes, and other necessary products, the act of stealing evolved on a vicious scale. Dulce Est Poem? In no time, people began to linger for more valuable merchandise, leading to fall apart twins the capture of the ultimate prize, humans. With the support of many other works, this paper will show how robbery and theft has evolved into. Charles Lindbergh , Crime , Embezzlement 2325 Words | 6 Pages. ?Online Identity Theft ; Are You Susceptible? COMP 129 October 10, 2013 . Identity Theft as defined by Merriam-Webster dictionary is the of dna in protein illegal use of someone elses personal information in things fall, order to get money or credit. Before the widespread use of cognitive domain personal information on the internet the things fall twins main source for Essay, identity theft was through dumpster diving.

This meant rummaging through peoples trash looking for bills or. Cheque , Credit card fraud , Credit history 1294 Words | 4 Pages. Identity Theft Final Paper Identity Theft Final Paper We all believe that identity theft will not happen to things fall apart twins . us and Choosing: Good or Evil become less likely to focus on protecting our personal information. Yet, most people say I do not know anyone that would do such harm to things apart twins me, it will not happen to me and it is the most common theft that most victims share. Did you know that the definition majority of things fall twins identity theft comes from family members? Family are the most common to Good Essay steal the identity of things fall apart twins other family members, so ask. Credit , Credit card , Credit history 2080 Words | 6 Pages.

Covert Video Surveillance Applications for and Intellectual Property, Employee Theft Detection: Why is things fall twins, This Controversial? Do covert video surveillance applications, effectively contribute to traditional overt methods of employee theft detection, and why is this . Dulce Et Decorum Est Poem? approach controversial? A study within the workplace of things apart twins a UK national retail superstore. Research Proposal Employee theft is a pervasive and expensive problem to businesses; it is about, considerably hard to detect and fall twins precise numbers on the scale of the problem are generally difficult to Essay about Compare “Out, Out” Break attain (Beck and Peacock, 2009). Professor Joshua Bamfield published his. Burglary , Crime , Employment 1476 Words | 4 Pages.

Identity theft is a serious problem that has been happening for things fall apart twins, a very long period of time. In America there are over 9 million victims of . identity theft that takes place every year. Research shows Nine out of ten American homeowners have concerns about becoming victims of identity theft . This is the most rapid growing type of fraud in the country, yet virtually two-thirds are hesitant whether their insurance policy is able to protect them financially if this crime were to occur. A vast proportion. Credit , Credit card , Credit card fraud 2587 Words | 7 Pages.

victim of identity theft . This essay reflects on Good or Evil Essay, the reasons why people should hold their information close to them, and how there information . is apart, not as safe as they think. Identity theft is the unauthorized use of another persons personal information to Essay and Intellectual achieve financial gain. It can be a stolen payment card to make a fraudulent payment. Anyone taking over someones account or falsely making a new one with another persons information. There are many different kinds of identity theft ranging from. Credit card , Credit card fraud , Crimes 1499 Words | 4 Pages. Identity Theft White Collar Crime. ? Identity Theft David Arcila Professor Jim Manning White Collar Crime 08/14/13 But he that . Things Fall Twins? filches from cognitive, me my good name, robs me of that which not enriches him, and makes me poor indeed. Shakespeare, Othello, act III.

Sc. 3. Once in a time before identity theft was a federal crime, there was a particular case where a convicted felon stole more than $100,000 of credit card debt, motorcycles, federal home loans, houses, and handguns in the victims. Credit card , Credit card fraud , Credit history 2241 Words | 9 Pages. Internet Identity Theft and Possible Solutions. Identity theft has been on the rise for years. Identity theft has always been a problem but it was not a problem of things fall apart exuberant . proportions like it is now.

The growth is due to the internet and Essay how easy it has become for thieves to steal identities. Stealing identities takes many forms. It could be someone stealing a credit card and using it to things twins make purchases. It can also be more severe, such as stealing someones identity and using it as their own. This form of identity theft is more severe and it. Credit card , Credit card fraud , Fair Credit Reporting Act 873 Words | 3 Pages. environment where theft seems acceptable. Essay On Copyright And Intellectual? Employees steal and find that there aren't any repercussions for their crime so they continue the . behavior. It's all positive for them because they get something out of fall apart it and there is no punishment. It was reported by the security Group of Cahner's Business that, if they saw others getting away with theft , 66% of in protein employees would steal. Things? This is not including the Essay on Copyright Property in Australia 13% who already steal or would steal anyway (Guerin 2004).

I believe that employee theft is twins, stealing. Dishonesty , Employment , Larceny 1004 Words | 3 Pages. Car Theft 7,024 cars were stolen last year in the city of domain Modesto alone, jumping to 55% more auto theft then 2003. Things Fall? . Cognitive Domain Definition? This percentile made Modesto the nation's capitol of car theft . Things Fall Apart Twins? Car theft is a crime that is Essay in Australia, growing rapidly due to things apart twins the large payoffs and the ease in stealing cars. I am going to tell the history, current ways of car theft and the future in Choosing: or Evil, the fight against car theft . In January of 1994, AB 813 was passed which provided funding to help and maintain ongoing statewide car. Automobile , Car theft , Carjacking 1094 Words | 3 Pages.

Identity Theft: A White Collar Crime. Identity Theft In today's society, there is fall apart, a white-collar crime that has greatly risen in popularity among criminals. This crime is . identity theft . Hundreds of or Evil Essay thousands of people have their identities stolen each year. Identity theft is when these criminals obtain and use consumers personal information such as credit card numbers, bank account numbers, insurance information, and apart social security numbers to purchase goods or services fraudulently. According to the Federal Trade Commission.

Credit card fraud , Credit score , Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act 2175 Words | 6 Pages. Identity Theft: How to Protect Your Personal Information. ? Identity Theft : How to Protect Your Personal Information Jason Jones American Military University Professor Mark Bond CMRJ306 . Criminal Investigation April 18, 2012 Identity theft began to emerge as a serious problem in the mid-1990s. It has been coined by many leading experts in the criminal justice arena as the crime of the new millennium. Identity theft without a doubt is the fastest growing crime in our society.

Between 2010 and 2011 it is estimated that 10 million. Credit card , Credit card fraud , Credit history 1097 Words | 5 Pages. Larceny: Theft and Extremely Important Resources. Larceny is dulce et decorum est poem, defined as the wrongful taking and twins carrying away of the personal goods of another from his or her possession with intent to convert them to the . takers own use. To bluntly say it, larceny is stealing from others. No matter what the motives or reasons behind stealing are, it is childhood friend, still wrong. I imagine there is a multitude of things fall apart motives for someone to Essay on Copyright convince himself or herself that it is worth the things fall apart risk to steal something. Good? Some other people might also not have the conscience to feel wrong.

Crimes , Emotion , Organized retail crime 1374 Words | 4 Pages. instincts and things apart twins traits had crept into me. The desire to have what I wanted, I needed the cards so bad they felt like an dulce et decorum, essential, a source of things fall survival. The . thrill in domain definition, the act of stealing felts automatic at time, like an instinct, a given behaviour. Snatch , grab and take it felt like orders programmed into me at apart, the time. Progressing further and Essay about Compare Break further away from the store, unable to resist I looked back ashamed, a sick cocktail of guilty, abysmal shameful emotions felt heavy in my gut.

I hurried. Blushing , Crime , Embarrassment 924 Words | 3 Pages. and categorizes each separate crime under those offenses. I have selected to discuss the crime of larceny theft for the two (2) metropolitan . areas of Washington D.C., Washington, and things Chicago, Illinois. In the Essay on Copyright Property following I will identify the number of twins occurrences, what the rates were, did the rates change over cognitive domain definition, time, and what factors could explain a change for both areas. First, larceny theft is typically defined as the things twins taking of almost anything of value without the consent of the owner, with the happy friend intent. 1918 , Crime , Criminal justice 964 Words | 3 Pages. Impact of Online Identity Theft on Consumers Organisations.

knowledge to fall apart the details of individual magnetic stripes behind a card and birthday childhood friend the card is then used in apart, places where technology is less high-tech or used abroad . because it is hard to definition detect that the card is apart twins, being used illegally. Another case of identity theft comes from Essay in Australia, a Swedish bank Nordea where the bank is fall apart, unknowingly scammed out of around $1.1mil through a 3 month time period from customers account, of those who had used the internet to access their account and birthday was targeted by the fraudsters using. Credit card , Credit card fraud , Fraud 1388 Words | 4 Pages. started including Scottish and things fall Irish oriented films into the mix giving a full dynamic of mobs to roles in protein choose from in the U.K English Mafia Movies took of in the . early 2000's With films like Layer Cake, Snatch , In Bruges Rock N Rolla. Recommended Watches: Layer Cake, Rock N Rolla, Ganster No.1, Snatch , The Long Good Friday, Sexy Beast, Lock, Stock and Two Smoking Barrels, The League Of Gentlemen Directors Guy Ritchie Directors in things apart twins, this genre are incredibly diverse that only guy. English film actors , Gangster No. 1 , Guy Ritchie 405 Words | 2 Pages. screen out theft -prone employees?

How exactly could these techniques be used? More thorough background checks are a recommend technique to . eliminate thieves. Birthday Childhood? Some firms chose to contract this out to a private security agency (Costmay be an fall, issue to Jennifer. However, the Essay Compare “Out, Out” and Mid-Term company can quickly check to things fall apart twins see if savingsfrom reduced theft would offset the cost of an outside agency. As part of the job preview,Carter must communicate that jobs in her company are worth keeping; dishonesty and theft will not. Documentary film techniques , Employment , Evaluation methods 590 Words | 3 Pages. The most common type of crime is and Mid-Term Break, property crime most. the definition, as ?the unlawful acquisition of fall apart another?s property through theft or deception? property crime can be as small as taking towels . from a hotel room with you.

So it could be send that everyone at some point in their lives has committed property crime no matter how small. Nine times out of cognitive definition ten major offenders of property crime are juveniles their crimes are usually in the form of petty theft , vandalism, car theft etc. Though there are a lot of cases of fall twins everyday citizens when given the opportunity. Crime , Crimes , Criminal law 811 Words | 3 Pages. Case Study Wilton Petroleum Jelly.

committing theft ? Why or why not? If I were Morris I would fire Taylor regardless if he might have been a conscientious employee within the cognitive domain . organization. Even though Taylor had the things apart proper knowledge, skills, and abilities that are associated for Wilton Petroleum Jelly he had a negative employee personality for Essay about Out” Break, the company. The fact that Taylor displayed unethical behavior by stealing gas and a ten dollar hammer he should be terminated. As in most companies there is a policy that states the twins theft of company. Burglary , Business ethics , Crime 1373 Words | 4 Pages. goods, animals, and minerals (Business Law, 2010, p. 739). Big retail stores like Wal-Mart, Best Buy, and Target suffers from cognitive domain, theft and . shoplifting on a daily basis in its daily operations. These thefts take in things twins, numerous forms, shoplifting of clothing from a department store, eating a grape from a grocery store, or purchasing stolen property is considered tangible. Theft of tangible property from any of these mentioned retailers is happy birthday childhood, infringing on property rights.

Retailers and grocery chains industries. Copyright , Private property , Property 723 Words | 3 Pages. POINTS 6.01.EO1 Recall the crime elements required to arrest a suspect for theft . To arrest a subject for theft , the . necessary crime elements include: the taking and carrying away of personal property of another without consent with intent to permanently deprive the owner. Fall Apart Twins? 6.01.EO2 Recall the crime elements required to arrest a suspect for vehicle theft . To arrest a subject for vehicle theft , the necessary crime elements include: the driving or taking of roles in protein a vehicle. Burglary , Crime , Crimes 1390 Words | 7 Pages.

within The Bargain Centre Aims: To investigate the number of different internal control procedures used within The Bargain Centre To gain . knowledge of things fall how the different internal control procedures help secure the Good business against fall twins theft and embezzlement etc. Data collection: In order to happy birthday childhood friend carry out things, my research on Internal Controls within The Bargain Centre Supermarket I have observed over a period of time, while I was employed part time, the different type of Internal Control. Accounts receivable , Balance sheet , Burglar alarm 726 Words | 3 Pages.

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Webster Industries, Inc. Things Fall Apart. v. Of Dna Synthesis. Northwood Doors, Inc., 320 F. Supp. 2d 821 (N.D. Iowa 2004) 320 F. Supp. 2d 821 (2004)

WEBSTER INDUSTRIES, INC., a Minnesota Corporation; Kretz Lumber Co., Inc., a Wisconsin Corporation; Woodline Manufacturing, Inc., a Minnesota Corporation; Wycombe Wood Products, Inc., a Wisconsin Corporation; and Hart Tie Lumber, Inc., a Wisconsin Corporation, Plaintiffs, NORTHWOOD DOORS, INC., an things fall apart twins Iowa Corporation; Partridge River Superior, Inc., a Wisconsin Corporation; Partridge River, Inc., a Minnesota Corporation; Partridge River Holdings, Inc., a Minnesota Corporation; Superior Dimension and Doors, L.L.C., a Minnesota Limited Liability Company; China Hardwood Import Products, L.L.C., a Minnesota Limited Liability Company; Andrew Richey; and Michael Miner, Defendants. United States District Court, N.D. Iowa, Central Division. *822 *823 Jeffery S Haff, Jeffrey S. Haff Associates, PA, Minneapolis, MN, for Hart Tie Lumber Co., Inc, Kretzlumber Co Inc, Webster Industries Inc, Woodline Manufacturing, Inc, Wycombe Wood Products, Inc, Plaintiffs.

*824 Donna Renae Miller, Grefe Sidney, Des Moines, IA, for Michael Miner, Northwood Doors, Inc, China Hardwood Imports, Inc, Partridge River Holdings, Inc, Superior Door and Dimension, Inc, Partridge River, Inc, Partridge River Superior, Inc, Defendants. Ryan Patrick Tang, Law Office of Ryan P. Tang, PC, Cedar Rapids, IA, for Hart Tie Lumber Co., Inc, Kretzlumber Co Inc, Webster Industries Inc, Woodline Manufacturing, Inc, Wycombe Wood Products, Inc, Plaintiffs. John Werner, Grefe Sidney, Des Moines, IA, for Michael Miner, Northwood Doors, Inc, Partridge River, Inc, China Hardwood Imports, Inc, Partridge River Holdings, Inc, Partridge River Superior, Inc, Superior Door and Dimension, Inc, Defendants. MEMORANDUM OPINION AND ORDER REGARDING THE PLAINTIFFS' MOTION FOR PARTIAL SUMMARY JUDGMENT AGAINST NORTHWOOD DOORS, AND THE DEFENDANTS' MOTION FOR PARTIAL SUMMARY JUDGMENT ON COUNTS VI-X AND XVI-XL. BENNETT, Chief Judge. Perhaps fraud, like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. In this action, where the plaintiffs see a grand conspiracy among *825 allegedly related businesses to defraud suppliers, the defendants see appropriate actions by a secured creditor to roles of dna wind up a business unexpectedly rendered insolvent by the sudden defection of things, its primary customer. Unlike art critics and beauty pageant judges, who may make a subjective determination of beauty, this court's task on motions for Good or Evil Essay, partial summary judgment on the plaintiffs' claims is not to determine whether there has been fraud or any other wrong-doing. Twins. Instead, this court must determine only whether the resisting parties have generated genuine issues of in protein synthesis, material fact that warrant submitting their view of the case to a jury.

On June 13, 2002, the various plaintiffs captioned above, described collectively herein as the Vendors, filed a Petition at things fall Law in the Iowa District Court for Worth County asserting numerous claims arising from the failure of insolvent defendant Northwood Doors, Inc., to pay for Compare and Mid-Term, goods and services that it received from the Vendors. More specifically, Webster Industries, Inc., seeks $177,230.88; Kretz Lumber Company, Inc., seeks $76,539.03; Woodline Manufacturing, Inc., seeks $99,154.91; Wycombe Wood Products, Inc., seeks $62,575.70; and Hart Tie Lumber Company, Inc., seeks $83,708.57. Each Vendor also seeks pre- and post-petition interest on the sum alleged. The defendants named in the petition include two individuals and several corporations in addition to Northwood. The additional corporate defendants are Partridge River Superior, Inc., Partridge River, Inc., and things apart Partridge River Holdings, Inc., all three of which are described collectively herein as the Partridge Defendants, Superior Dimension and Doors, L.L.C. (SDD), and China Hardwood Import Products, L.L.C. (CHIPS). The individual defendants are Andrew Richey and Michael Miner, who allegedly are or were responsible for the day-to-day operations of the dulce est poem defendant companies. Although the Vendors only provided goods to Northwood, they allege that, at all pertinent times, there existed a unity of interest and ownership among the various defendants, such that the individuality or separateness of each corporation or individual should be disregarded. Failure to pierce the fall corporate veil in this way, they allege, would sanction a fraud, promote injustice, or both. The specific claims asserted by Essay Out” and Mid-Term, the Vendors at the outset of things, this litigation were the following: (1) Counts I through V of the petition alleged Actions on on Copyright and Intellectual Property in Australia Account; (2) Counts VI through X alleged claims denominated Quantum Meruit, but these claims were later recharacterized by the Vendors as Quantum Valebant; (3) Counts XI through XV alleged actions on things fall twins Accounts Stated; (4) Counts XVI through XX alleged Fraudulent Transfers; (5) Counts XXI through XXV alleged Unjust Enrichment; (6) Counts XXVI through XXX alleged Misappropriation of Corporate Opportunity/Breach of Fiduciary Duty/Breach of Duty of Good Faith and Fair Dealing; (7) Counts XXXI through XXXV alleged Fraud; and finally (8) Counts XXXVI through XL alleged claims pursuant to the Racketeer Influenced and on Copyright in Australia Corrupt Organization Act (RICO). Things. See Webster Indus., Inc. v. Northwood Doors, Inc., 234 F. Supp.

2d 981, 984-86 (N.D.Iowa 2002) ( Webster Industries I ) (identifying the Vendors' claims in somewhat greater detail). Defendant Miner removed this action to this federal court on September 9, 2002, citing the Vendors' RICO claims as the basis for federal question jurisdiction. The Vendors did not challenge the removal. Essay In Australia. Although the Vendors were granted leave to things apart twins amend their removed complaint on October 15, 2002, that amendment went to the proper identification *826 of one of the defendants rather than to the addition, deletion, or modification of any claims. Defendant Miner, joined by defendant Northwood, made a pre-answer challenge to some of the claims in the Vendors' removed petition. By order dated November 14, 2002, the court denied Miner's and Northwood's motion to dismiss as to or Evil Essay Counts VI through X (Quantum Meruit, recharacterized as Quantum Valebant), but granted the motion as to Counts XXVI through XXX (Misappropriation of things apart twins, Corporate Opportunity/Breach of Fiduciary Duty/Breach of Duty of Good Faith and Fair Dealing). See id. at “Out, Out” and Mid-Term 998. Therefore, Counts I through XXV and XXXI through XL are still pending as to things fall twins all defendants except Richey, and Property in Australia Counts XXVI through XXX are still pending against all defendants except Northwood, Miner, and Richey. In a subsequent ruling, on February 13, 2003, the court denied the Vendors' motion for default judgment against the Partridge Defendants, SDD, CHIPS, and apart twins Andrew Richey, and granted the Essay on Copyright and Intellectual Property in Australia motion by these defendants to set aside the entry of default against them by the Clerk of Court, on the ground that these defendants had never been properly served. See Webster Indus., Inc. Things Twins. v. Essay On Copyright Property In Australia. Northwood Doors, Inc., 244 F. Supp.

2d 998 (N.D.Iowa 2003) ( Webster Industries II ). All of the defendants, with the exception of Andrew Richey, were subsequently properly served and eventually appeared and things defended in this action. Trial is scheduled to begin in this matter on April 19, 2004. However, now before the court are two motions for partial summary judgment aimed at of dna in protein eliminating trial on things apart twins most of the Vendors' claims. Definition. The first is the Vendors' December 9, 2003, motion for partial summary judgment against fall apart twins, Northwood on claims identified by the Vendors as their contract and unjust enrichment claims. See Plaintiffs' Motion For Partial Summary Judgment Against Northwood Doors, Inc. (docket no. 58) at 1. Notwithstanding the Vendors' failure to identify the precise counts in question, Northwood, the in protein synthesis Partridge Defendants, SDD, CHIPS, and Michael Miner reported to the court on February 2, 2004, that they have no resistance to the Vendors' motion for partial summary judgment. Unlike the things fall twins first motion for partial summary judgment, the cognitive definition second motion for partial summary judgment now before the court is resisted. That motion is the fall apart defendants' December 12, 2003, motion for partial summary judgment (docket no. 59) on Counts VI through X and XVI through XL of the Vendors' complaint. Compare €Out, And Mid-Term Break. The Vendors resisted that motion on January 9, 2004, and the defendants filed a reply in further support of the motion on February 2, 2004. [1] Even if granted, these motions for partial summary judgment will leave for trial the claims in Counts I through V (Actions On Account) and XI through XV (Accounts Stated) against all defendants except Northwood, which does not resist summary judgment on these counts, and Andrew Richey, who has never been served with the complaint.

The parties have not requested oral arguments on the pending motions for partial summary judgment and the court has not found it necessary to order such oral arguments sua sponte. Therefore, the motions for things apart twins, partial summary judgment are now fully submitted on the record and written arguments. Rather than attempt an exhaustive survey of the facts, undisputed and disputed, *827 in this case, the court will provide here sufficient factual background to the parties' dispute to put in context their arguments concerning the pending motions for partial summary judgment. Additional facts, or factual disputes, will be discussed as they become relevant in happy birthday friend, the court's legal analysis. Northwood and the Partridge Defendants were at least nominally separate corporations, with common owners including Michael Miner, Andrew Richey, and their families and fall apart twins overlapping, but not identical, boards of directors. Although the defendants dispute the Vendors' contention that Northwood and the Partridge Defendants were operated as one entity, there is undisputed evidence of definition, interrelationship of the things fall apart twins operations of Essay Compare “Out, and Mid-Term Break, these nominally separate entities. For example, the defendants do not dispute the following: (1) that there were inter-company transfers of assets for credits on the books, but without cash changing hands; (2) that individual companies in twins, the group used credit references actually based on business relationships of domain, other companies in the group; (3) that when the things entities borrowed money from the bank, all of the entities signed jointly and severally, rather than in proportion to the benefit to any individual corporation; or (4) that Miner's, Inc., a separate entity wholly owned by the Miner family, guaranteed the debts of Northwood and the Partridge Defendants indeed, the defendants affirmatively state that Miner's, Inc., funded these companies. The Vendors all shipped goods to Northwood (and only Northwood) in the summer and fall of 2001. Northwood then used or intended to use those goods in its manufacturing business. The last goods supplied by the Vendors were shipped prior to October 24, 2001.

That date is significant, because on October 24, 2001, Northwood received notice from Medallion Cabinetry, Northwood's primary customer, that Medallion was terminating the business relationship between the two companies in less than a week. After receiving the notice from Medallion, Andrew Richey, the president of Northwood, made the decision to close the happy birthday Northwood plant in Northwood, Iowa. Northwood returned some of the goods supplied by the Vendors, but the Vendors refused to accept return of goods that had been custom made for Northwood. Fall Twins. The defendants assert that only after the Vendors had refused to accept some returns were remaining raw materials transferred from Northwood to Partridge River Superior, but the Vendors contend that there is no evidence of when those transfers occurred, although there is no dispute that the transfers did occur at Essay about Break some point. Although the defendants maintain that Richey continued to attempt to work out payment arrangements with the Vendors, the twins Vendors point out that they were never paid for the goods in question.

The defendants contend that Richey believed that Northwood could continue operations and pay all of its creditors until Medallion Cabinetry withdrew its business. Synthesis. The Vendors, however, contend that Northwood was in financial difficulties before Medallion Cabinetry notified Northwood that it was terminating their relationship. The Vendors point to evidence, including e-mails, that Andrew Richey had considered closing Northwood on or about October 1, 2001, but that the apart twins corporate decision-makers had decided to of dna in protein synthesis continue operations in what Richey himself described at the time as a 180-degree turn. The Vendors also point to other evidence that employees of Northwood and the Partridge Defendants were concerned about misleading vendors or getting behind with vendors before October 2001. The Vendors contend that Northwood representatives nevertheless encouraged them to things fall apart twins ship products to roles in protein synthesis Northwood knowing *828 that Northwood would never pay for those products, while at the same time stripping assets from Northwood by transferring equipment to the Partridge Defendants. The parties do not dispute that, from October 27, 2000, until April 15, 2002, M I Bank was the first-priority secured creditor of Northwood, as well as the other Partridge Defendants.

M I's enforceable security interest was in all of Northwood's and the Partridge Defendants'equipment, fixtures, inventory . documents relating to inventory, general intangibles, accounts, deposits, contract rights, chattel paper and instruments, investment property, and all additions and accessories to, all spare and repair parts, special tools, equipment, and included a mortgage on the real property of the Northwood plant. Things Apart. Furthermore, the parties do not dispute that on April 15, 2000, Miner's, Inc., purchased all of the M I loan documents from M I and roles in protein entered into other financial arrangements to succeed to the interests of fall twins, M I Bank, after which Miner's, Inc., had stepped into M I's position as the first-priority secured creditor of Northwood and the Partridge Defendants. And Intellectual. Similarly, the parties do not dispute that, from December 21, 1999, through May 6, 2002, Wells Fargo Equipment Finance, Inc., had a secured interest in the equipment at apart twins the Northwood plant, but that Miner's, Inc., entered into an Assignment and Assumption Agreement with Wells Fargo on May 6, 2002, whereby Miner's, Inc., acquired all of Wells Fargo's right, title, and interest under the Northwood loan documents and security instruments. It is undisputed that the amounts of the liens and dulce security interests secured by the assets of Northwood and the Partridge Defendants exceeded the apart twins value of those assets. However, the Vendors contend that the liens and security interests secured by of dna synthesis, Northwood's assets did not necessarily exceed the value of that company's assets. The defendants contend that all of the products shipped by the Vendors were subject to security interests of Northwood's creditors and that the twins Vendors had notice of those security interests through proper filing and dulce et decorum est poem recording of the fall liens.

They also contend that all of the Compare “Out, transfers by apart twins, Miner's, Inc., of Northwood's assets after Miner's, Inc., succeeded to M I's and Wells Fargo's security interests, were within the rights of a secured party. Those transfers included transferring Northwood's assets to SDD, a separate entity wholly owned by dulce est poem, the Miner family, for credit against Northwood's debts, after Northwood ceased operations; foreclosing on the mortgage on Northwood's real property; purchasing that property at a sheriff's sale; and reselling that property and apart twins equipment on the property for an amount in synthesis, excess of what Miner's, Inc., bid for the real property in things fall apart twins, the sheriff's sale. The disposition of a motion for Choosing: Good Essay, summary judgment pursuant to Rule 56 of the Federal Rules of fall, Civil Procedure ordinarily depends upon whether or not there are genuine issues of material fact for trial. Quick v. Donaldson Co., 90 F.3d 1372, 1376-77 (8th Cir. 1996) (on a motion for summary judgment, the childhood trial judge's function is things apart twins, not to weigh the birthday childhood friend evidence and things determine the truth of the matter, but to determine whether there are genuine issues for trial); Johnson v. Enron Corp., 906 F.2d 1234, 1237 (8th Cir.1990). In reviewing the record, the court must view all of the facts in the light most favorable to cognitive definition the nonmoving party and give that party the benefit of things fall twins, all reasonable inferences that can be drawn from the facts. See Matsushita Elec. Indus. Co. v. Zenith Radio Corp., 475 U.S. Choosing: Good Or Evil Essay. 574, 587, 106 S. Ct. 1348, 89 L. Fall. Ed.

2d 538 (1986); Quick, 90 *829 F.3d at 1377 (same). Procedurally, the moving party bears the initial responsibility of informing the district court of the roles of dna in protein synthesis basis for things twins, its motion and Choosing: identifying those portions of the record which show lack of a genuine issue. Hartnagel v. Norman, 953 F.2d 394, 395 (8th Cir.1992) (citing Celotex Corp. Things Twins. v. Catrett, 477 U.S. 317, 323, 106 S. Ct. 2548, 91 L. Ed. 2d 265 (1986)); see also Rose-Maston v. NME Hosps., Inc., 133 F.3d 1104, 1107 (8th Cir.1998); Reed v. Woodruff County, Ark., 7 F.3d 808, 810 (8th Cir.1993).

When the moving party has carried its burden under Rule 56(c), the party opposing summary judgment is happy birthday, required under Rule 56(e) to things apart twins go beyond the pleadings, and by affidavits, or by the depositions, answers to interrogatories, and admissions on file, designate specific facts showing that there is a genuine issue for trial. FED. R. CIV. P. 56(e); Celotex, 477 U.S. at Essay about Out” and Mid-Term 324, 106 S. Ct. 2548; Rabushka ex. rel.

United States v. Crane Co., 122 F.3d 559, 562 (8th Cir.1997), cert. denied, 523 U.S. 1040, 118 S. Fall Apart Twins. Ct. 1336, 140 L. Ed. 2d 498 (1998); McLaughlin v. Esselte Pendaflex Corp., 50 F.3d 507, 511 (8th Cir.1995); Beyerbach v. Sears, 49 F.3d 1324, 1325 (8th Cir.1995). An issue of material fact is genuine if it has a real basis in the record. Hartnagel, 953 F.2d at birthday 394 (citing Matsushita Elec. Indus. Co., 475 U.S. at 586-87, 106 S.Ct. Things Fall Apart Twins. 1348). Only disputes over facts that might affect the Essay and Intellectual in Australia outcome of the suit under the governing law will properly preclude the entry of summary judgment, i.e., are material.

Anderson v. Liberty Lobby, Inc., 477 U.S. 242, 248, 106 S. Ct. Things Fall Apart. 2505, 91 L. Ed. 2d 202 (1986); Beyerbach, 49 F.3d at 1326; Hartnagel, 953 F.2d at 394. If a party fails to make a sufficient showing of an essential element of a claim with respect to which that party has the burden of proof, then the opposing party is cognitive definition, entitled to judgment as a matter of law. Celotex Corp., 477 U.S. at 323, 106 S. Ct.

2548; In re Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) Implants Prod. Liab. Litig., 113 F.3d 1484, 1492 (8th Cir.1997). The court will apply these standards to the pending motions for partial summary judgment. B. The Vendors' Motion For Partial Summary Judgment. The first motion for partial summary judgment now before the court is the Vendors' December 9, 2003, motion for partial summary judgment (docket no. 58). In that motion, the Vendors seek summary judgment against Northwood on what the Vendors now describe as their contract and unjust enrichment claims. See Plaintiffs' Motion For Partial Summary Judgment Against Northwood Doors, Inc. (docket no. 58) at 1. The Vendors acknowledge that partial summary judgment in their favor on these claims against Northwood may be a meaningless gesture, because Northwood is now assetless.

See Plaintiffs' Brief In Support Of Motion For Partial Summary Judgment Against Northwood Doors, Inc., at 3. Nevertheless, the Vendors contend that there is no genuine issue of material fact that they were not paid for products that they supplied to Northwood and that they are, therefore, entitled to judgment as a matter of law in the amount due and owing to each of fall apart, them from Northwood. And Mid-Term Break. As mentioned above, notwithstanding the Vendors' failure to identify the precise counts in question, Northwood, the Partridge Defendants, SDD, CHIPS, and Michael Miner reported to the court on February 2, 2004, that they have no resistance to the Vendors' motion for partial summary judgment. See Defendants' Report To Court Regarding Response To Plaintiffs' [First] Motion For Summary Judgment (docket no. 67). Fall Apart Twins. The defendants' Report was in keeping with Rule 56.1 of the birthday childhood Local Rules Of The United States District Courts For The Northern District Of Iowa, which encourages a party who does not intend to resist a motion for summary judgment to file a statement *830 indicating that the motion will not be resisted. Because the Vendors' first motion for partial summary judgment is not resisted, the Vendors are entitled to the judgment they seek. Nevertheless, there are still one or two matters for the court to resolve regarding this motion for partial summary judgment. First, the court must resolve the question of the things twins specific claims to which the motion refers. What the cognitive domain definition Vendors mean by their unjust enrichment claims is clear enough, because Counts XXI through XXV are specifically identified in the amended complaint as Unjust Enrichment claims. The court assumes that what the Vendors mean by their contract claims is claims based on fall apart implied-in-fact contract theories, that is, the claims in Counts I through XV, identified in the complaint as Actions on Account, Quantum Meruit (later recharacterized as Quantum Valebant), and Accounts Stated.

See Webster Industries II, 234 F. Supp. 2d at 987 (noting that the Vendors argued, in Essay about Break, response to the defendants' motion to dismiss, that they had not asserted any express contract claims) 991-94 (distinguishing between pleading quantum meruit or other implied-in-fact contract theories and express contract theories in things apart, the alternative, which is allowed, and recovering on both implied-in-fact and express contract theories, which is not). Therefore, the court will grant the Vendors' motion for cognitive domain, partial summary judgment in their favor against Northwood Doors on Counts I through XV and XXI through XXV. Second, the court must consider the apart amount that the Vendors are entitled to recover on these claims. The Vendors now pray for the following amounts: Webster Industries for $253,352.05; Kretz Lumber for $78,434.34 plus statutory interest after January 2, 2002; Woodline Manufacturing for Choosing: Essay, $99,154.91 plus late fees at the rate of 24% per annum from and after October 16, 2001; Wycombe Wood Products for $68,667.64; and Hart Tie Lumber Company for $118,866.16. Although these sums differ from the amounts allegedly due at the time that the Vendors' filed their complaint, the Vendors also expressly prayed in their complaint for pre- and post-petition interest at specified rates. The court concludes not least because the defendants make no resistance that the Vendors have properly calculated their recovery in light of applicable pre- and fall post-petition interest rates. Finally, it does not appear that the Vendors are improperly seeking multiple recoveries on multiple theories, where they each seek only one sum as their recovery under four different theories.

Therefore, the court will enter partial summary judgment in the amounts for which the Vendors pray. C. The Defendants' Motion For Partial Summary Judgment. The second motion for partial summary judgment now before the court is the defendants' December 12, 2003, motion for partial summary judgment (docket no. Essay About Compare €Out, Out” Break. 59) on Counts VI through X and XVI through XL of the Vendors' complaint. Somewhat more specifically, this motion challenges the Vendors' claims on fall theories of Quantum Meruit, recharacterized as Quantum Valebant (Counts VI through X); Fraudulent Transfer (Counts XVI through XX); Unjust Enrichment (Counts XXI through XXV); Misappropriation of Corporate Opportunity/Breach of Fiduciary Duty/Breach of Duty of Good Faith and Fair Dealing (Counts XXVI through XXX); Fraud (Counts XXXI through XXXV); and RICO Violation (Counts XXXVI through XL). Essay And Intellectual In Australia. Presumably, the motion seeks partial summary judgment in favor of all of the things apart defendants to the extent that such judgment would not be inconsistent with the defendants' lack of resistance to partial summary judgment against *831 Northwood on Counts VI through X and XXI through XXV. [2] This motion requires more extensive analysis than the Vendors' motion for partial summary judgment, because it is both resisted and more far-reaching.

The court will consider the defendants' motion for partial summary judgment as to each kind of claim in turn. However, the court must first address, at least in passing, an issue raised by the Vendors in their resistance to the defendants' motion for partial summary judgment, which is the dulce et decorum est poem choice of law applicable to their claims. In their resistance, the Vendors contend that, in fall apart, the event of a conflict, Iowa choice-of-law rules require the dulce et decorum est poem application of Wisconsin law to their claims. In their reply, however, the defendants argue that, contrary to the Vendors' position, Iowa choice-of-law rules require the application of Iowa law to fall apart twins the Vendors' claims. The court concludes that the choice-of-law issue is premature, because the domain definition Vendors have not demonstrated that there is a true conflict between the things fall twins laws of the nominee states. See Modern Equip.

Co. v. Continental Western Ins. Co., Inc., 355 F.3d 1125, 1128 n. 7 (8th Cir.2004) (If there is not a true conflict between the laws of Nebraska and Iowa on dulce the pertinent issue, then no choice-of-law is required. Nesladek v. Ford Motor Co., 46 F.3d 734, 736 (8th Cir.1995).); Counsul General of Republic of Indonesia v. Bill's Rentals, Inc., 330 F.3d 1041, 1045 (8th Cir.2003) (Before considering any issues of conflict of laws, we must first determine whether `there actually is a difference between the relevant laws of the different states.' Phillips v. Marist Soc'y of apart twins, Washington Province, 80 F.3d 274, 276 (8th Cir.1996) (quoting Barron v. Compare €Out, And Mid-Term Break. Ford Motor Co. of things twins, Canada, Ltd., 965 F.2d 195, 197 (7th Cir.1992)).); Phillips v. Essay About Compare And Mid-Term Break. Marist Soc'y, 80 F.3d 274, 276 (8th Cir.1996) ([B]efore entangling itself in messy issues of conflict of laws a court ought to things satisfy itself that there actually is a difference between the relevant laws of the different states.); Harlan Feeders, Inc. Happy Birthday. v. Grand Labs., Inc., 881 F. Things. Supp. 1400, 1405 (N.D.Iowa 1995) (noting that there must be a true conflict between the laws of the possible jurisdictions on the pertinent issue before any choice of birthday, law need be made). At most, the Vendors have pointed to things apart twins statements of Wisconsin courts that they believe are more favorable to their positions, not cases from Iowa and Wisconsin that demonstrate a true conflict of domain, laws in the two jurisdictions on pertinent issues. In the absence of things fall twins, a true conflict, the court will apply Iowa law, the law of the forum state, in addressing the of dna issues raised in things fall apart twins, the defendants' motion for partial summary judgment. [3] *832 2. The Quantum Valebant claims. The defendants first seek summary judgment on the Vendors'Quantum Meruit claims in Counts VI through X, which the Vendors have recharacterized as Quantum Valebant claims. See Webster Industries I, 234 F. Supp. Domain Definition. 2d at things apart 987 (noting this recharacterization) 991-95 (discussing the defendants' motion to happy dismiss the claims as recharacterized). Unfortunately, the defendants' motion and briefs in fall apart, support of their motion do not identify any specific arguments as directed at the viability of the Quantum Valebant claims.

However, the defendants do make the following argument: The undisputed facts are that Plaintiffs had business dealings with only two Defendants: Northwood and its president Andrew Richey. Thus, the only possible legal basis for Plaintiffs' attempt to birthday childhood obtain a judgment against the other Defendants would be by establishing the existence of fraud involving conveyances of Northwood's assets which ultimately were transferred to twins the other Defendant corporations. The undisputed facts in domain definition, this case establish that no fraudulent conveyances occurred. Further, the apart undisputed facts establish that Plaintiffs cannot maintain claims for unjust enrichment, fraud, or RICO. Defendants' Memorandum Of Law In Support Of Summary Judgment Motion at 4. In contrast, in their resistance, the dulce et decorum Vendors argue that the basis for holding all of the defendants liable on the Vendors'contract claims is that the fall apart fiction of the happy childhood friend corporate defendants' separateness should be ignored, because the Partridge Defendants were one entity with Northwood, and fall apart SDD was the successor to Partridge River Superior and Northwood. See Plaintiffs' Memorandum In Opposition To Defendants' Motion For Partial Summary Judgment at 7-11. As explained above, the party moving for summary judgment bears the initial responsibility of informing the district court of the basis for its motion and identifying those portions of the record which show lack of a genuine issue. Hartnagel, 953 F.2d at 395 (citing Celotex Corp., 477 U.S. at 323, 106 S.Ct.

2548); see also Rose-Maston, 133 F.3d at 1107; Reed, 7 F.3d at 810. The defendants have plainly not met this burden with respect to the Vendors'Quantum Valebant claims, where they made no attempt to identify the happy birthday precise basis for their contention that they are entitled to fall apart summary judgment on those claims. The defendants should not be saved from this failure by the court's attempt to determine what arguments *833 were intended to roles of dna synthesis support their motion for summary judgment on the Quantum Valebant claims. Moreover, even if the court is correct in its assumption that this portion of the defendants' motion for things twins, partial summary judgment is premised on the argument that fraudulent transfers must be shown to hold the other defendants liable for Northwood's failure to pay for products, that argument fails. Although proof that separate corporations are being used to promote fraud or illegality is a factor that would support a finding that the separate identities of the corporations should be disregarded, that circumstance is not the only one sufficient to permit holding one corporation liable for Choosing: Good, conduct of another.

Indeed, the Iowa Supreme Court dispelled such a notion more than two decades ago in Team Central, Inc. v. Teamco, Inc., 271 N.W.2d 914 (Iowa 1978). In Team Central, one of the defendants challenged the sufficiency of a jury's finding that one corporation `is an instrumentality of, or conduit for, and one and things apart twins the same as [the other]' as establishing that two corporations were not separate entities, so that one could be held liable for conduct of the other. Team Central, Inc., 271 N.W.2d at 923 (quoting the special interrogatory to happy birthday childhood which the jury answered in the affirmative). The Iowa Supreme Court first agreed that mere identity of stock ownership and things fall apart corporate management is not alone sufficient to permit a piercing of the corporate veil, but noted that the Good or Evil district court had detailed twelve circumstances to be considered along with `all other evidence in the case' in determining if the corporate veil should be pierced. Id. Like the defendants here, the main thrust of the defendants' argument in Team Central [wa]s that fraud is an fall apart essential element for application of this doctrine, and of dna in protein synthesis that the trial court erred in listing it as a factor but not a necessary one. Id. The Iowa Supreme Court found that this argument was without merit.

Id. The court explained, It is true that the corporate veil doctrine is most frequently applied to avoid fraud. However, it is things apart twins, equally appropriate under other circumstances when one corporation is used as a mere sham for the other. Team Central, Inc., 271 N.W.2d at 923 (citing cases). Roles Of Dna Synthesis. The court upheld the jury's determination that the corporate veil should be pierced, and one corporation could be held liable for conduct of the other, where [t]here was substantial evidence that [one defendant] was a mere sham for [the other] without real independent existence and that this arrangement was used to do severe, if not irreparable, harm to [the plaintiff] by the tortious conduct previously described. Id. The court also rejected the defendant's contention that whether or not the corporate veil should be pierced was a question of law for the court, holding instead that this contention was not a correct statement of the law. Id.

Thus, even if the record established that there were no fraudulent transfers, or other fraud, as a matter of law, that would not require summary judgment in favor of the defendants (excluding Northwood) on the Vendors'Quantum Valebant claims, because there could still be other bases for holding the other defendants' liable for Northwood's conduct. [4] *834 Therefore, the portion of the defendants' motion for partial summary judgment seeking summary judgment on the Quantum Valebant claims in Counts VI through X will be denied. The defendants do expressly identify their arguments attacking the viability of the Vendors'Fraudulent Transfer claims in Counts XVI through XX of the amended complaint. They contend, and the Vendors agree, that the Fraudulent Transfer claims are governed by the Uniform Fraudulent Transfer Act (UFTA), which Iowa adopted in 1995. See IOWA CODE CH.

684. The defendants argue that, to establish a fraudulent transfer, the Vendors must establish that an asset was transferred within the meaning of the UFTA. They contend that the Vendors cannot establish the transfer of things apart, any assets, because under the UFTA (and Iowa common law), property encumbered by happy childhood friend, a valid lien is not an asset. The defendants argue that Northwood had no property that was not encumbered by valid security interests. They argue that even the apart products supplied by the Vendors, who were unsecured creditors, became subject to M I's first-priority security interests as soon as those products were received into Northwood's inventory. The Vendors had notice of M I's security interests, the defendants contend, from proper filing and perfection of Essay “Out,, those security interests. In short, the defendants argue that, [b]ecause there were no `assets,' a `transfer' could not have been made, and the undisputed facts thus establish that there were no fraudulent transfers under Iowa's version of the UFTA. The Vendors contend that the things apart twins defendants have not disputed their contention that the defendants acted with an intent to or Evil hinder, delay, or defraud the Vendors by transferring Northwood's assets to the other defendants and to Miner's, Inc. Things Apart. The crux of the Essay about “Out, Out” Break Vendors' challenge to the defendants' argument, however, is that there was still equity in certain real and personal property held by things apart, Northwood, over and above the Choosing: amount of any lien or security interest at issue, so that such property constituted assets within the meaning of the UFTA to the extent of the equity. Consequently, they assert that the items of apart twins, property were assets subject to the UFTA's prohibition on fraudulent transfers. *835 The Vendors argue, generally, that the debts secured by liens were not all owed by Northwood, but by Northwood and the Partridge Defendants, so that it is only by combining the secured debts of Essay on Copyright and Intellectual Property in Australia, Northwood and the Partridge Defendants that the defendants come up with a calculation that Northwood's assets were insufficient to things cover its secured debts. Essay. The Vendors make two more specific arguments.

The first is that Miner's, Inc., failed to demand payment on Andrew Richey's personal guarantee of Northwood's debts, and fall twins instead took nothing from Richey in return for his release of any claims that he might have had against Northwood's property. The Vendors argue that this course improperly eliminated equity that might have existed had Miner's, Inc., called in dulce est poem, Richey's guarantee. Things Apart. Their most strenuous argument, however, is that after Miner's, Inc., foreclosed on roles of dna synthesis the other collateral subject to security interests, debts of only about $1.2 million were left unresolved; that prior valuations of Northwood's real property and personal property indicated that it had a fair market value of approximately $2.6 million; that Miner's, Inc., only realized about $1.2 million on that property at the sheriff's sale of the Northwood real property and other sales of Northwood's equipment; and things fall that, as a result of the defendants' failure to obtain full value for Northwood's real property and equipment, the defendants wiped out any potential fund to Good Essay pay unsecured creditors like the Vendors. The Vendors also argue that all of the transactions to foreclose on Northwood's property were insider transactions, which failed to obtain fair market value for the property, and which placed the benefit of the insiders Miner family and its holdings above the interests of any unsecured creditors, such that the foreclosure transactions and fall twins other transfers were themselves fraudulent. The fatal flaw in the Vendors' argument, the defendants contend in their reply, is that the Vendors have failed to put on any evidence to et decorum support their argument that the value of the property at issue exceeded the fall apart amount of the valid liens. Thus, they contend, there is in protein, no basis for finding that the things fall transactions were fraudulent.

More specifically, they point out that the Essay Out” Vendors have no evidence to support their valuation of property, to things apart twins show that transfers were not for fair market value, or to show that Andrew Richey's personal guarantee of Northwood's debts had any value. Furthermore, they point out that the record shows beyond dispute that there were other secured creditors, who stood in line ahead of the Vendors, but who also have not been paid. Happy Friend. Thus, even if the sales had netted more, there would still have been no assets, because there would still have been no equity in property in things, excess of liens. i. Applicable law. The Vendors' claims of Fraudulent Transfers are pursuant to Iowa's version of the Uniform Fraudulent Transfer Act (UFTA). See IOWA CODE CH. 684. Notwithstanding that the Iowa UFTA has been on the books since 1995, see id., there is a dearth of Iowa decisions interpreting its provisions. Therefore, the court must rely on birthday friend the statutory language itself, assisted, where appropriate, by things fall apart twins, interpretations of the uniform language of the UFTA by courts in other jurisdictions. The Iowa UFTA defines transfers that are fraudulent as to present and future creditors, in pertinent part, as follows:

1. A transfer made or obligation incurred by a debtor is fraudulent as to a creditor, whether the creditor's claim arose before or after the Choosing: or Evil transfer was made or the obligation was incurred, if *836 the debtor made the transfer or incurred the obligation under any of the following circumstances: a. With actual intent to hinder, delay, or defraud any creditor of the debtor. b. Without receiving a reasonably equivalent value in exchange for the transfer or obligation, if either of the following applies: (1) The debtor was engaged or was about to engage in a business or a transaction for which the remaining assets of the debtor were unreasonably small in relation to the business or transaction. (2) The debtor intended to incur, or believed or reasonably should have believed that the debtor would incur, debts beyond the apart twins debtor's ability to pay as they became due. IOWA CODE 684.4. The Iowa UFTA also defines transfers that are fraudulent only as to present creditors as follows: 1. A transfer made or obligation incurred by a debtor is fraudulent as to a creditor whose claim arose before the Essay and Intellectual in Australia transfer was made or the obligation was incurred if the debtor made the transfer or incurred the obligation without receiving a reasonably equivalent value in exchange for the transfer or obligation and the debtor was insolvent at that time or the debtor became insolvent as a result of the transfer or obligation. 2. A transfer made by a debtor is things fall apart twins, fraudulent as to a creditor whose claim arose before the transfer was made if the birthday childhood transfer was made to an insider for things fall apart, an antecedent debt, the debtor was insolvent at birthday childhood friend that time, and the insider had reasonable cause to believe that the debtor was insolvent.

IOWA CODE 684.5. Transfer is defined under the UFTA as every mode, direct or indirect, absolute or conditional, voluntary or involuntary, of disposing of or parting with an twins asset or an interest in an asset, and includes payment of money, release, lease, and creation of a lien or other encumbrance. IOWA CODE 684.1(11) (emphasis added). Thus, a transfer, and more specifically, a fraudulent transfer, must involve an asset. An asset, in Essay Property in Australia, turn, is defined as property of a debtor, but expressly excludes, inter alia, [p]roperty to things twins the extent it is encumbered by a valid lien. IOWA CODE 684.1(2) (a). Choosing: Good Essay. [5] The Iowa Supreme Court adopted the UFTA's definition of asset for common law purposes long before the Iowa legislature adopted the UFTA itself. See First National Bank in Fairfield v. Frescoln Farms, Ltd., 430 N.W.2d 432, 436-37 (Iowa 1988) (finding that the things fall UFTA provides a better definition of assets that should be included in cognitive domain definition, a calculation of solvency, and adopt[ing] this definition because it assures that a `solvency' supported by such `assets' will have some meaning to a creditor, as the property can be reached through the things fall twins legal process). Roles Of Dna Synthesis. Consequently, if a transfer involves only apart, property encumbered by Essay Out” and Mid-Term, a valid lien, it cannot be a fraudulent transfer within the meaning of either the things UFTA or Iowa common law, because there is et decorum est poem, no asset involved, and if there is no asset involved, the fall apart intent of the parties to or Evil the transfer is irrelevant. Things. See, e.g., Ed Peters Jewelry Co., Inc. v. C J Jewelry, 124 F.3d 252, 261-62 (1st *837 Cir.1997) (laying out a similar analysis of about Compare “Out, Break, Rhode Island's version of the apart UFTA); accord In re Valente, 360 F.3d 256, 260-61 (1st Cir.2004) (citing Ed Peters and holding that property worth only $150,000, but encumbered by a $168,000 first mortgage as well as a number of state and federal tax liens was not an asset under the UFTA).

Moreover, because property is not an asset to Essay about Out” the extent it is encumbered by a valid lien, the fall twins plain meaning of the statutory definition of asset is roles in protein synthesis, that property of a debtor is an asset to things fall twins the extent it is not encumbered by a valid lien, i.e., to the extent that the debtor has any equity in the property. See, e.g., In re Main, Inc., Debtor, 1999 WL 689715, *6 n. 7 (E.D.Pa.1999) (concluding that the difference between the value of Essay, Main's assets and the value of Lift's liens would be property of the debtor subject to avoidance under the [UFTA], because it was not excluded from the definition of an asset); Mussetter v. Lyke, 10 F. Supp. 2d 944, 958-59 (N.D.Ill.1998) (Uniform case law confirms the self-evident proposition that the unencumbered portion of a debtor's property is an `asset' for UFTA purposes ( see, e.g., Ransier v. McFarland (In re McFarland), 170 B.R. 613, 622-23 (Bankr.S.D.Ohio 1994); Rich v. Rich, 185 W.Va. 148, 405 S.E.2d 858, 861 (1991)).); National Loan Investors, L.P. Things Apart Twins. v. World Properties, L.L.C., 79 Conn.App. 725, 830 A.2d 1178, 1183 (2003) (property was an asset to the extent that the value of the property, $14.5 million, exceeded the valid lien of $5.2 million); Preferred Funding, Inc. v. And Intellectual In Australia. Jackson, 185 Or.App. 693, 61 P.3d 939, 942 (2003) ([O]nly `equity in apart twins, excess of the amount of the encumbering lien(s) is an asset under UFTA.') (quoting Oregon Account Systems, Inc. v. Dulce Est Poem. Greer, 165 Or.App.

738, 996 P.2d 1025 (2000)); Telephone Equip. Things Apart Twins. Network, Inc. Essay About Compare €Out,. v. TA/Westchase Place, Ltd., 80 S.W.3d 601, 610 n. Things. 6 (Tex.App. Hous.(1 Dist.)2002) (stating, [U]nder the plain language of the UFTA, the value of Southwest's property in excess of TEN's lien encumbering the property would be an asset as defined by UFTA, and citing decisions in other jurisdictions so holding). The defendants contend that Northwood had no assets, that is, no property with a value in excess of encumbrances. Essentially, the happy birthday childhood Vendors assert that there were two assets that should have given Northwood equity in excess of encumbrances: (1) Andrew Richey's personal guarantee of Northwood's debts, and (2) Northwood's real property and equipment. The court will consider these purported assets in fall apart twins, turn. ii. Richey's personal guarantee. The analysis of the first issue is necessarily brief: The Vendors have failed to point to happy birthday childhood any evidence that generates a genuine issue of material fact that Andrew Richey's personal guarantee had any value whatsoever, where they have pointed to no evidence that Richey had any assets of his own. Fall Apart Twins. Thus, there is no evidence generating a genuine issue of definition, material fact that the defendants' failure to make a demand on Andrew Richey's personal guarantee resulted in apart, Northwood's secured debts exceeding the value of the property subject to liens. FED.

R. Dulce Est Poem. CIV. P. 56(e) (the party resisting summary judgment must to go beyond the pleadings, and by affidavits, or by the depositions, answers to interrogatories, and admissions on file, designate specific facts showing that there is a genuine issue for trial); Celotex, 477 U.S. at things fall apart 324, 106 S. Ct. And Intellectual Property In Australia. 2548 (same). Indeed, the apart twins undisputed evidence is that the roles in protein defendants' decision to release Richey from his guarantee in return for a release of any claims he might have against Northwood only served to things apart twins eliminate potential claims against Northwood. iii.

Northwood's property. As to roles synthesis the question of the things value of Northwood's *838 real property and equipment, the court finds that the cognitive domain defendants have met their initial burden on things apart a motion for partial summary judgment to dulce est poem show that there was no property of Northwood that was not encumbered by a valid lien in excess of the value of the property. See Hartnagel, 953 F.2d at 395 (the movant for summary judgment bears the initial responsibility of informing the district court of the basis for its motion and identifying those portions of the record which show lack of a genuine issue) (citing Celotex Corp., 477 U.S. at 323, 106 S.Ct. 2548); see also Rose-Maston, 133 F.3d at 1107; Reed, 7 F.3d at 810. They have done so by showing that foreclosure of the liens against the real property and equipment did not produce any equity in excess of the liens against that property. Thus, the question is whether the Vendors have met their burden to go beyond the things fall apart pleadings, and by affidavits, or by the depositions, answers to interrogatories, and admissions on file, designate specific facts showing that there is happy birthday childhood friend, a genuine issue for trial on the question of whether Northwood had equity in property in excess of the liens against that property. Apart. FED. R. CIV. About €Out, Break. P. 56(e); Celotex, 477 U.S. at 324, 106 S. Ct. Things. 2548. In an attempt to meet this burden, the only evidence to which the Vendors point is evidence that Northwood's real property and and Intellectual in Australia equipment were purportedly valued at $2.6 million, versus remaining secured debt of about $1.2 million, but Miner's, Inc., only bid the amount of Northwood's debt to Miner's, Inc. about $707,000 for the real property at the sheriff's sale, and only obtained about another $250,000 on the subsequent sale of equipment.

The Vendors' assertions concerning the value of the property at issue rely entirely on a letter to creditors from counsel retained by Northwood in connection with a possible Chapter 7 bankruptcy filing. See Plaintiffs' Appendix In Opposition To Defendants' Motion For Partial Summary Judgment at 146 (Exhibit 16). Apart. That letter states, in pertinent part, Northwood Doors, Inc. real property, i.e., its plant facility, was most recently appraised in December of 1999 at $2.1 million and, in fact, the plant has been listed for sale with a commercial real estate broker for that amount. Est Poem. Id. The letter also states, Management has estimated that the liquidation value of the personal property of things apart twins, Northwood Doors, Inc.'s assets, including equipment, raw material inventories, supplies, and dulce et decorum accounts receivable, to be [sic] $500,000.

Id. Fall. Thus, the letter states a valuation for the real property that was more than two years old, from Choosing: Good, a time when Northwood was a going concern, and indicates that, despite being listed for fall apart twins, sale at $2.1 million, the real property had not been sold. Therefore, the letter itself suggests that the estimated value of $2.1 million was too high, either for a going concern or for property under liquidation. [6] If that were the extent of the record, however, the Vendors might have succeeded in generating a jury question on the issue of whether the value of Northwood's property exceeded the liens against it. There is other unrebutted evidence that the Choosing: Essay valuation of property in counsel's letter is too high, however. Under Iowa's version of the Uniform Commercial Code, if the sale of collateral is completed in accordance with a judicial proceeding, the things fall twins sale is conclusively presumed to be commercially reasonable. Geiger v. Tokheim, 191 B.R.

781, 791-92 (N.D.Iowa 1996) (citing IOWA CODE 554.9507(2)); IOWA CODE 554.9507(2) (stating, in pertinent part, A disposition which has been approved in any judicial proceeding or by any bona fide *839 creditors' committee or representative of creditors shall conclusively be deemed to be commercially reasonable, but this sentence does not indicate that any such approval must be obtained in any case nor does it indicate that any disposition not so approved is not commercially reasonable.). On the other hand, other jurisdictions have held that a foreclosure sale may itself be deemed to be a fraudulent transfer under the about Compare Out” and Mid-Term UFTA, if the sale can be shown to be collusive. See, e.g., Mussetter, 10 F. Supp. 2d at 959. Thus, it would not be appropriate to apply a conclusive presumption of commercial reasonableness to things twins a foreclosure sale for real property under the UFTA, even where the roles foreclosure sale was in accordance with a judicial proceeding; however, it would be appropriate to apply a rebuttable presumption in those circumstances. Here, the things fall apart twins Vendors have pointed to no evidence whatsoever suggesting that the foreclosure sale of the Northwood property was collusive. Compare id. Essay On Copyright And Intellectual. (identifying numerous facts demonstrating a collusive sale).

They also have not pointed to any other evidence undermining the commercial reasonableness of the fall foreclosure sale. Even if the buyer at the sale, Miner's, Inc., was an insider pursuant to the UFTA based on the Vendors' allegations that Miner's, Inc., controlled Northwood, see IOWA CODE 684.1(7) (b) (3) (where the debtor is a corporation, an insider includes, inter alia, [a] person in Good, control of the debtor) Miner's, Inc., was also the first-priority lienholder, so that, in the absence of any other bidder, Miner's, Inc., would be expected to bid the amount that would extinguish the liens on the property. Moreover, the Vendors have not challenged the defendants' contentions that the bidding at the foreclosure sale on the Northwood real property was open to everyone, that other potential bidders were actually present, or that the only party actually to bid at the sale was Miner's, Inc. Thus, the $707,000 that Miner's, Inc., bid for the real property must be presumed to represent the fair market value of the property. Apart. The Vendors have done nothing to rebut that presumption. The Vendors have also failed to cognitive domain generate a genuine issue of material fact on the reasonableness of the price that Miner's, Inc., paid based on things fall evidence that Miner's, Inc., subsequently resold the property for almost $1 million.

As the defendants point out, the HUD-1-Uniform Settlement Statement for the subsequent sale demonstrates that equipment, as well as the Choosing: Good or Evil Essay real property, was included in that subsequent sale. See Defendants' Supplemental Appendix, Exhibit E. Finally, even that sale for about $1 million would not have demonstrated that there was any equity in the property in excess of the $1.2 million in secured debt, so that the subsequent sale does nothing to suggest that the property involved was an asset within the meaning of the UFTA. Therefore, the apart twins defendants are entitled to summary judgment in their favor on et decorum the Vendors'Fraudulent Transfer claims in Counts XVI through XX of the amended complaint, because the Vendors have failed to generate any genuine issue of material fact that there were any assets of Northwood, within the fall twins meaning of the UFTA and Iowa common law, that could be fraudulently transferred. The defendants have also moved for summary judgment on the Vendors'Unjust Enrichment claims in Counts XXI through XXV of the amended complaint. [7] *840 The defendants contend that they are entitled to summary judgment on these counts, because actions taken pursuant to childhood a valid security interest, judgment, or other interest in fall, the property cannot form the basis for a claim for unjust enrichment. They argue that, in on Copyright Property in Australia, this case, the undisputed evidence shows that Miner's, Inc., exercised its rights pursuant to a valid and fall twins enforceable security interest in et decorum, the assets and personal property of Northwood, obtained and executed a foreclosure judgment, purchased Northwood's plant at things fall apart twins a sheriff's sale, obtained a sheriff's deed, and later resold the property to a third party, all of which Miner's, Inc., was authorized to do under Iowa law. The Vendors argue that the defendants have not identified correctly the transactions that are the basis for the Vendors' Unjust Enrichment claims. Instead of focusing on the purchase of Northwood's property by a secured creditor, Miner's, Inc., as the defendants seem to think, the Vendors' contend that the Choosing: or Evil Essay present Unjust Enrichment claims focus on the transfers of the Vendors' products from Northwood to companies that were inter-related with Northwood without paying the things fall twins Vendors for those products. The defendants do not reply to the Vendors' contentions that the defendants have misinterpreted the Unjust Enrichment claims. This court recently summarized the nature of an unjust enrichment claim under Iowa law, and the elements that must be proved to recover on such a claim, in Helm Financial Corp. v. Iowa Northern Railway Company, 214 F. And Intellectual. Supp. 2d 934 (N.D.Iowa 2002): As the Iowa Supreme Court recently explained, The doctrine of unjust enrichment is fall twins, based on the principle that a party should not be permitted to be unjustly enriched at cognitive domain the expense of another or receive property or benefits without paying just compensation.

Credit Bureau Enters., Inc. v. Pelo, 608 N.W.2d 20, 25 (Iowa 2000). Twins. Although it is Essay about Out” and Mid-Term Break, referred to as a quasi-contract theory, it is equitable in nature, not contractual. Things Fall Twins. See Iowa Waste Sys., Inc. v. Buchanan County, 617 N.W.2d 23, 29 (Iowa Ct.App.2000). It is contractual only in the sense that it is based on an obligation that the law creates to Essay Compare “Out, Break prevent unjust enrichment. See id. at 29-30. Things Apart Twins. The doctrine of domain definition, unjust enrichment serves as a basis for restitution.

Smith, 325 N.W.2d at 94. It may arise from contracts, torts, or other predicate wrongs, or it may also serve as independent grounds for restitution in the absence of mistake, wrongdoing, or breach of contract. See 1 Dobbs, 4.1(1), at 553. Recovery based on things fall apart twins unjust enrichment can be distilled into three basic elements of recovery. They are: (1) defendant was enriched by happy childhood friend, the receipt of a benefit; (2) the enrichment was at the expense of the plaintiff; and twins (3) it is unjust to allow the defendant to retain the benefit under the circumstances. See Credit Bureau Enters., Inc., 608 N.W.2d at 25; West Branch State Bank v. Gates, 477 N.W.2d 848, 851-52 (Iowa 1991). State, Dept. of Human Services ex rel. Palmer v. Unisys Corp., 637 N.W.2d 142, 154-55 (Iowa 2001) (footnotes omitted) ( Palmer ). The court in Palmer *841 explained that lack of a remedy at law had sometimes been characterized as an element of an unjust enrichment claim, but explained, The adequacy of a legal remedy is a general limitation on the exercise of equity jurisdiction and is properly considered when restitution is sought in equity, but no independent principle exists that restricts restitution to cases where alternative remedies are inadequate. Essay And Intellectual. Palmer, 637 N.W.2d at 154 n. 2. Apart Twins. In addition, in Palmer, the Iowa Supreme Court clarified the domain definition critical inquiry on fall apart twins the second element of such a claim, as follows: We recognize unjust enrichment is of dna in protein synthesis, a broad principle with few limitations. We have never limited this principle to require the benefits to be conferred directly by the plaintiff. See Iconco v. Jensen Constr.

Co., 622 F.2d 1291, 1301-02 (8th Cir.1980) (plaintiff not required to show he directly conferred benefit on defendant under Iowa law). Instead, benefits can be direct or indirect, and can involve benefits conferred by third parties. See I Palmer, 1.7, at 40-41, 44. The critical inquiry is that the benefit received be at the expense of the plaintiff. See Guldberg v. Greenfield, 259 Iowa 873, 878, 146 N.W.2d 298, 301 (1966). Things Fall. Palmer, 637 N.W.2d at 155. Helm Fin. Corp., 214 F. Supp. 2d at 991-92. It is clear from Choosing: Good or Evil Essay, this overview of the applicable law and review of the amended complaint that the defendants' characterization of the Vendors'Unjust Enrichment claims as relating to things fall apart the purchase by Miner's, Inc., of Northwood's property is of dna in protein, simply incorrect. These counts are, instead, premised on allegations that if the twins defendants are allowed to retain the property transferred as alleged in prior counts and about “Out, Out” not required to pay the original creditors, they will receive, to their benefit and at the Vendors' expense, the fall apart Vendors' labors, efforts, investments, and about Out” and Mid-Term property.

See Amended Complaint, Counts XXI through XXV. Things Fall Apart. The transfers to which the Unjust Enrichment counts refer are the shipments of dulce, products from the Vendors to Northwood at issue in the Actions on Account (Counts I through V), the Quantum Valebant claims (Counts VI through X), and the Accounts Stated claims (Counts XI through XV), as well as the things fall apart transfers of assets from Northwood to roles of dna the Partridge Defendants and from Northwood and the Partridge Defendants to SDD and CHIPS, as alleged in the Fraudulent Transfer claims (Counts XVI through XX). See id. Thus, the basis for liability of the defendants other than Northwood is things fall apart, that those defendants were so inter-related with Northwood that the Essay on Copyright and Intellectual Property separateness of the fall entities should be disregarded. In light of this interpretation of the Unjust Enrichment claims, it is clear that the defendants have failed to meet their initial burden to inform[ ] the district court of the basis for or Evil Essay, its motion and things fall identify[ ] those portions of the record which show lack of a genuine issue on dulce est poem the Unjust Enrichment claims, where the defendants are wrong about the fall apart transfers upon which the claims are based. In Protein. See Hartnagel, 953 F.2d at 395 (the movant for things apart, summary judgment bears the initial responsibility of informing the district court of the basis for its motion and identifying those portions of the record which show lack of a genuine issue) (citing Celotex Corp., 477 U.S. at 323, 106 S.Ct.

2548); see also Rose-Maston, 133 F.3d at 1107; Reed, 7 F.3d at 810. Therefore, the defendants' motion for summary judgment on or Evil the Unjust Enrichment claims in Counts XXI through XXV will be denied. 5. The Corporate Opportunities and Duties claims. The defendants next seek summary judgment on the Vendors' claims of Misappropriation *842 of things apart twins, Corporate Opportunity/Breach of Fiduciary Duty/Breach of dulce et decorum est poem, Duty of Good Faith and Fair Dealing in Counts XXVI through XXX of the amended complaint. The defendants' basis for summary judgment on things twins these claims is that the court has already granted Michael Miner's motion to dismiss these claims, joined in roles of dna synthesis, by Northwood, and [f]or the same reasons asserted in Michael Miner's motion to dismiss, any remaining shareholder claims should also be dismissed. Defendants' Memorandum Of Law In Support Of Summary Judgment Motion at 4 n. 1. The court can find no arguments in the Vendors' resistance brief that appear to be responsive to this portion of the defendants' summary judgment motion; therefore, this portion of the defendants' summary judgment motion will be granted.

See FED. R. CIV. P. 56(e) (the party resisting summary judgment must to fall twins go beyond the Essay and Intellectual Property in Australia pleadings, and by affidavits, or by the depositions, answers to interrogatories, and admissions on file, designate specific facts showing that there is a genuine issue for trial); Celotex, 477 U.S. at 324, 106 S. Ct. 2548 (same). Next, the defendants have moved for summary judgment on the Vendors'Fraud claims in Counts XXXI through XXXV of the things twins amended complaint.

The defendants contend that the only allegation of birthday friend, a fraudulent statement is that Northwood allegedly indicated a willingness to pay for goods purchased, knowing that it could not do so. However, the defendants point out that the things apart last time any of the cognitive domain Vendors shipped goods to Northwood was in October 2001, when Northwood was fully operational and had a revenue source from which to pay its creditors. Thus, the defendants contend that any statements made by Richey or anyone else after Medallion Cabinetry withdrew its business from Northwood could not have been for the purpose of obtaining more products or credit from the apart twins Vendors. They also point out Choosing: Good Essay that no products that originated with the Vendors were shipped from Northwood to Partridge River Superior until the Vendors refused to accept returns of those products, so that there could be no fraud in the transfer of products to Partridge River Superior. In short, the defendants contend that the undisputed facts establish that the Vendors cannot satisfy their burden of proving that Richey, or anyone else on behalf of Northwood, made knowing misrepresentations to things fall twins the Vendors to obtain extended credit or additional products. The Vendors contend, however, that they can maintain their Fraud claims, because the defendants knew that they could not pay the Vendors, but Northwood was allowed to continue soliciting products from them through false claims of upcoming payments. They claim that the critical period for fraudulent statements is not just the Essay about “Out, Out” Break few days before Northwood closed its doors in late October 2001, but the whole of 2001, during which Northwood and the Partridge Defendants knew that they could not pay their vendors, but would promise them that they would pay them. The Vendors point to evidence that Dan Popp of Partridge River, Inc., thought this practice was a problem, because it would mislead vendors; that Northwood and things twins the Partridge Defendants were running out of cash months before Northwood's collapse and that the entities were using their vendors as a bank; that Northwood was transferring equipment to Partridge River Superior in the summer of 2001; that Richey intended to close Northwood prior to October 1, 2001, but that the management meeting resulted in a 180 degree turn; and that, after Northwood closed, Richey sent creditors letters promising payment when, to Michael Miner's *843 knowledge, there was no plan to make repayments.

In reply, the defendants assert that the Vendors have still not pointed to about Compare Out” and Mid-Term any evidence of their reliance on any representations by Richey or anyone else, or any evidence that their reliance, if any, resulted in damages to them. As to the latter point, the defendants contend that, because there were no assets from which the debts to the Vendors could have been settled, there were no damages to the Vendors, even if Richey's post-closure statements delayed any suit the Vendors might have brought to try to recover on unpaid bills. i. Things Fall Apart. Nature of the claims. Counts XXXI through XXXV of the amended complaint allege that defendant Northwood represented to each Vendor a willingness to pay for goods purchased, and in happy friend, so doing, obtained goods from things apart twins, that Vendor; that such representations were material, false, known by the defendants to be false, and were intended by the defendants to cognitive domain definition deceive each Vendor; and things fall apart twins that each Vendor reasonably relied on the representations of defendant Northwood in Essay and Intellectual Property in Australia, extending credit. These counts allege, further, that the false representations of Northwood proximately caused the fall apart injuries suffered by each Vendor, including, but not limited to, the reasonable value of all goods sold and services performed for the defendants for which payment has not been received, as well as lost profits, interest, collection costs, legal fees, and costs of bringing this action. These counts are devoid, however, of any specification of the precise nature of the representations; when, by whom, and to whom the representations were made; the Choosing: Good factual basis for any belief that the representations were false or known to be false; or when and how the things fall apart twins Vendors relied on roles the representations in extending credit. Things Twins. [8]

Notwithstanding the vagueness of the pleading of the fraud claims, it is apparent that the gravamen of those claims as pleaded is that Northwood made false representations of intent to pay for on Copyright and Intellectual, goods to induce the things apart Vendors to supply products on credit in the first place, rather than subsequent conduct of the defendants after delivery *844 of the goods. See, e.g., Complaint, Count XXI, 266 (Defendant NORTHWOOD represented to Plaintiff WEBSTER a willingness to pay for goods purchased, and in so doing, obtained goods from Plaintiff WEBSTER.), 270 (They [sic] intended Plaintiff WEBSTER to rely on those false representations in order to obtain additional goods from Plaintiff WEBSTER.) 271 (Plaintiff WEBSTER reasonably relied on the representations of of dna in protein, Defendant NORTHWOOD in apart twins, extending credit.). The court concludes that it would be improper to construe the Fraud claims to challenge some wider range of conduct, where the claims have not been pleaded in compliance with Rule 9(b) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. FED. Essay Property In Australia. R. Twins. CIV. P. 9(b) (In averments of roles, fraud . the circumstances constituting fraud . shall be stated with particularity.). It is also apparent that the fall apart twins fraud claims at dulce et decorum est poem issue here are causes of action at fall apart twins law for damages, rather than equitable claims to est poem rescind a contract or equitable defenses to things twins breach-of-contract claims. See Dishman v. American Gen. Assur. Co., 193 F. Supp.

2d 1119, 1124-25 (N.D.Iowa 2002) (distinguishing between an equitable action to Essay about Compare Out” rescind a contract based on fraud, fraudulent inducement as an equitable defense to a breach-of-contract claim, and an action at law for damages based on fraud, citing, inter alia, Hyler v. Garner, 548 N.W.2d 864 (Iowa 1996), as explaining these distinctions). The court also concludes that the claims at issue here are essentially broken promises claims, specifically, broken promises to fall pay later for goods delivered now. This court has twice considered at length the Compare Out” Break question of whether Iowa law recognizes a cause of action for fraudulent misrepresentation based on broken promises in Schaller Telephone Co. v. Golden Sky Systems, Inc., 139 F. Supp. Fall Twins. 2d 1071, 1104-06 (N.D.Iowa 2001), and Brown v. North Central F.S., Inc., 987 F. Supp. 1150, 1157 (N.D.Iowa 1997). In both Schaller Telephone Company and Choosing: Essay Brown, this court concluded that, under Iowa law, a statement of intent to perform a future act is things, actionable if, when the statement is made, the speaker had an existing intent not to perform. See Schaller Tel. Co., 139 F. Supp. Cognitive. 2d at 1105; Brown, 987 F. Supp. at 1157.

Thus, the things fall twins Vendors'Fraud claims are at least colorable under Iowa law, because they allege that Northwood stated an intent to pay later for cognitive domain definition, goods received, but had an existing intent not to perform when the promise was made. The question is whether the Vendors can generate genuine issues of material fact on the elements of such claims. ii. Elements of the claims. As the Iowa Supreme Court recently explained, to fall establish a claim at law for damages for fraudulent misrepresentation, a plaintiff must prove (1) defendant made a representation to the plaintiff, (2) the representation was false, (3) the Essay on Copyright Property in Australia representation was material, (4) the defendant knew the representation was false, (5) the defendant intended to deceive the plaintiff, (6) the plaintiff acted in reliance on the truth of the representation and was justified in relying on the representation, (7) the representation was a proximate cause of plaintiff's damages, and (8) the amount of damages. Gibson v. ITT Hartford Ins. Twins. Co., 621 N.W.2d 388, 400 (Iowa 2001); In re Marriage of Cutler, 588 N.W.2d 425, 430 (Iowa 1999) (defining the elements of fraud as including (1) misrepresentation or failure to disclose when under a legal duty to do so, (2) materiality, (3) scienter, (4) intent to happy childhood friend deceive, (5) justifiable reliance, and things fall (6) resulting injury or damage). The knowledge of falsity and intent to deceive elements distinguish an action at happy childhood friend law for damages for fraud from an equitable action to rescind a contract, because *845 even innocent misrepresentations may be sufficient to support an action for rescission, but they are not sufficient to things fall twins support a fraud action at law for damages. Hyler, 548 N.W.2d at 872. About Compare €Out, Out” And Mid-Term. The plaintiff must prove the elements of fraudulent misrepresentation by clear and things apart convincing evidence. In re Marriage of Cutler, 588 N.W.2d at 430; see also Ralfs v. Mowry, 586 N.W.2d 369, 373 (Iowa 1998) (describing the burden as proving the roles synthesis existence of fraud by clear, satisfactory, and convincing evidence) (citing Benson v. Richardson, 537 N.W.2d 748, 756 (Iowa 1995)).

The defendants challenge the existence of any evidence of falsity of any alleged representation, the defendants' knowledge of falsity, the Vendors' reliance, and damages from fall apart, that reliance. In the present circumstances, the court concludes that the and Intellectual Vendors have albeit just barely pointed to evidence generating a genuine issue of material fact as to whether or not Northwood was already unable to pay its bills when it promised to things fall twins pay the Vendors for products shipped to Compare “Out, Out” Northwood on credit (falsity of the representation), and things twins that Northwood's representatives knew at that time that Northwood would be unable to pay the of dna Vendors when their bills came due (knowledge of things twins, falsity). See FED. Essay On Copyright And Intellectual Property. R. CIV. P. Things Twins. 56(e) (the party resisting summary judgment must go beyond the pleadings, and by roles synthesis, affidavits, or by the depositions, answers to fall interrogatories, and admissions on file, designate specific facts showing that there is a genuine issue for trial); Celotex, 477 U.S. at 324, 106 S. Ct. 2548. Those genuine issues of material fact arise from evidence that Northwood representatives were already concerned that Northwood was or soon would be unable to pay its bills well before Medallion Cabinetry withdrew its business and that Northwood representatives discussed the company's need to rely on its vendors to extend credit to get Northwood through the bad patch.

Similarly, the court concludes that the Vendors have generated genuine issues of material fact on their actual reliance on happy birthday childhood friend misrepresentations, whether or not that reliance was justifiable, and damages resulting from things twins, that reliance, where they have pointed to evidence that they shipped goods on credit in reliance on promises to pay, but were not paid. See id. Essay Out”. (resisting party's burden to defeat summary judgment). Things Fall. The defendants have pointed to no evidence showing that the Vendors should have known that Northwood could not pay for the goods when they first extended credit to or Evil Essay Northwood or showing that the Vendors were not damaged by reliance on Northwood's representations where they were not paid indeed, the defendants' arguments concerning lack of reliance and lack of damages from reliance do not relate to the pre-collapse transactions and representations that the court finds actually are pleaded as the basis for the Vendors'Fraud claims. Twins. Thus, it is the defendants who have failed to carry their initial burden to obtain summary judgment on the reliance and damages from reliance elements of the happy birthday friend Vendors'Fraud claims. See Hartnagel, 953 F.2d at 395 (the movant for summary judgment bears the initial responsibility of informing the district court of the basis for its motion and identifying those portions of the record which show lack of a genuine issue) (citing Celotex Corp., 477 U.S. at 323, 106 S.Ct. 2548); see also Rose-Maston, 133 F.3d at things twins 1107; Reed, 7 F.3d at 810. While the court has little doubt that it would find against the Vendors on this claim, if it were the trier of happy birthday childhood friend, fact, it is not the court's role on a motion for summary judgment to decide the truth of the matters presented, and the Vendors have presented just enough evidence to generate a fact question for the jury on their Fraud claims. See Quick, 90 F.3d at 1376-77 (on a motion for summary judgment, the trial *846 judge's function is not to things twins weigh the evidence and determine the truth of the “Out, and Mid-Term matter, but to determine whether there are genuine issues for fall apart twins, trial).

Therefore, the cognitive defendants' motion for summary judgment on things fall apart twins the Vendors'Fraud claims in roles synthesis, Counts XXXI through XXXV will be denied. Finally, the court turns to the defendants' motion for summary judgment on Counts XXXVI through XL of the amended complaint, which allege claims pursuant to the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organization Act (RICO). Although the defendants made no challenge to the adequacy of the Vendors' pleading of their Fraud claims, the things fall apart twins defendants's first challenge to the RICO claims is that the claims have not been adequately pleaded under Rule 9(b) of the cognitive Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. Specifically, the defendants contend that the Vendors have not pleaded any details as to the time, place, and things fall content of false representations, or the identity of the person making the misrepresentation and what was obtained or given up thereby. The defendants also point out that the claims do not specify what provisions of the Iowa Business Corporation Act or Uniform Commercial Code the defendants have allegedly violated. Even if the Good or Evil Essay claims satisfy the heightened pleading requirements of things fall, Rule 9(b), the defendants still contend that summary judgment in their favor is appropriate on these claims, because the Vendors cannot establish the existence of birthday friend, a predicate act for a RICO claim, either in the form of things apart twins, fraudulent transactions, where all transactions involved property that was security for debts, or mail fraud, where no mailing contained a fraudulent representation. Next, the defendants assert that the cognitive Vendors cannot establish any pattern of racketeering activity, either in terms of number, relatedness, or continuity of predicate acts, and the undisputed facts show that any scheme lasted at most four months prior to the last delivery of goods by the Vendors. The Vendors contend that they can establish a RICO claim, because they can establish violations of the UFTA, involving a series of fraudulent transactions spanning the time from their first shipments in 2001 through the setting up of SDD in April of 2002, as well as related acts of mail fraud. [9] They argue that it is not necessary that statements in a mailing be fraudulent, as the defendants contend, if the fall twins mailings were designed to lull the recipient into a false sense of security, postpone inquiries, or hide the dulce et decorum appearance of fraud. There is evidence of such mailings, they contend, in the form of letters from fall apart twins, Andrew Richey promising a repayment scheme that did not exist and letters to creditors from Northwood's bankruptcy counsel painting a false picture of insufficient assets to cover secured debts. They also assert that the scheme lasted more than a year, because it involved fraudulent transfers from mid-2001 through the sale of assets in 2003 by Miner's, Inc., that gave Miner's, Inc., a profit, but provided no benefit to et decorum est poem unsecured creditors.

In reply, the defendants point out that the Vendors have not even attempted to demonstrate the sufficiency of their pleadings to meet the heightened pleading requirements for RICO claims. They also *847 contend that the letters to which the Vendors point were not part of a scheme to commit any fraudulent transactions, but that even giving the Vendors the benefit of things twins, all doubts, the last allegedly fraudulent act would have been Richey's letter to the Vendors in December 2001, so that the supposed scheme simply didn't last long enough to roles synthesis satisfy the requirements of a RICO claim. i. Elements of the RICO claims. Fall Apart Twins. The Vendors do not make clear, in either their complaint or their resistance to summary judgment, the precise nature of their RICO claims. However, it appears that they are pleading claims of et decorum, conduct in things twins, violation of 18 U.S.C. Dulce Est Poem. 1962(c). Section 1962(c) makes it unlawful for any person employed by or associated with any enterprise engaged in, or the activities of apart, which affect, interstate or foreign commerce, to conduct or participate, directly or indirectly, in the conduct of such enterprise's affairs through a pattern of racketeering or collection of unlawful debt. 18 U.S.C. Cognitive. 1962(c). Persons injured by reason of a 1962 violation have standing to bring a civil suit pursuant to 18 U.S.C. 1964(c). See Fogie v. Things Fall Apart. THORN Americas, Inc., 190 F.3d 889, 894 (8th Cir.1999).

To prove such a claim, a RICO plaintiff must prove the Choosing: Essay defendant `engaged in (1) conduct (2) of an enterprise (3) through a pattern (4) of racketeering activity.' Asa-Brandt, Inc. v. ADM Investor Servs., Inc., 344 F.3d 738, 752 (8th Cir.2003) (quoting Handeen v. Lemaire, 112 F.3d 1339, 1347 (8th Cir.1997)); In re Sac Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa/Meskwaki Casino Litigation, 340 F.3d 749, 767 (8th Cir.2003) (To state a claim under 1962(c), a plaintiff must establish (1) the existence of an enterprise; (2) conduct by the defendants in association with the apart enterprise; (3) the defendants' participation in at least two predicate acts of racketeering; and in protein (4) conduct that constitutes a pattern of racketeering activity. United HealthCare Corp. v. American Trade Ins. Fall Apart Twins. Co., 88 F.3d 563, 570 (8th Cir.1996).). ii. Pleading requirements for the RICO claims. Among other things, the Vendors must have adequately pleaded a pattern of roles of dna synthesis, racketeering activity, i.e., a pattern of predicate acts. 18 U.S.C. Things Twins. 1962(c); Abels v. Essay Property. Farmers Commodities Corp., 259 F.3d 910, 918 (8th Cir.2001). There are two issues here that should be kept distinct: whether the plaintiffs have sufficiently pleaded acts of racketeering, and whether those alleged acts can be said to form a pattern. Things Twins. Abels, 259 F.3d at Essay about Out” 919. Thus, a heightened pleading standard pursuant to things fall twins Rule 9(b) of the Choosing: or Evil Federal Rules of Civil Procedure applies when the predicate acts alleged are acts of fraud; however, particularized allegations are not needed in order to determine whether a pattern exists, that is, to determine whether there are any facts that the plaintiffs could plead that would connect the predicate acts to the pattern.

See id. (clarifying Murr Plumbing, Inc. v. Scherer Bros. Fin., 48 F.3d 1066 (8th Cir.1995)). As to things pleading of predicate acts of fraud, Rule 9(b) requires that the domain plaintiff specifically allege the `circumstances constituting fraud,' Fed.R.Civ.P. Things Fall Twins. 9(b), including `such matters as the time, place and contents of cognitive domain definition, false representations, as well as the identity of the person making the misrepresentation and what was obtained or given up thereby.' Id. at 920 (quoting Bennett v. Berg, 685 F.2d 1053, 1062 (8th Cir.1982), adhered to on reh'g, 710 F.2d 1361 (8th Cir.) ( en banc ), cert. denied, 464 U.S. 1008, 104 S. Ct. 527, 78 L. Fall Apart Twins. Ed. 2d 710 (1983)); accord Murr Plumbing, Inc., 48 F.3d at 1069. Predicate acts making up a pattern of racketeering activity may include mail fraud, as proscribed by 18 *848 U.S.C. 1341, and wire fraud, as proscribed by 18 U.S.C. 1343.

Abels, 259 F.3d at 918. These fraud offenses would necessarily be subject to the heightened pleading standards of Rule 9(b). See id. Because the roles of dna in protein synthesis conduct constituting these offenses may vary widely, [a] plaintiff may, but need not, allege that a defendant made misrepresentations of things fall twins, fact, and no misrepresentations need be transmitted by roles in protein synthesis, mail or wire: even routine business communications in these media may suffice to make a scheme of false dealing into a federal offense. Fall. Abels, 259 F.3d at cognitive domain definition 918; see also Atlas Pile Driving Co. Things Fall Apart Twins. v. DiCon Financial Co., 886 F.2d 986, 992 (8th Cir.1989) ([A] mailing [that serves as an element of mail fraud] may be a routine mailing or even one that is sent for a legitimate business purpose so long as it assists in carrying out the fraud) (internal quotations omitted). And Mid-Term. Because the Vendors have identified certain mailings that they assert furthered a fraud, even if those mailings did not contain misrepresentations, the Vendors have identified some conduct that could constitute predicate acts for things, purposes of their RICO claims. On the other hand, fraudulent transfers as defined by the UFTA are not criminal offenses identified as racketeering activity in 18 U.S.C. 1961(a). Cf. Wisdom v. First Midwest Bank of Poplar Bluff, 167 F.3d 402, 406 (8th Cir.1999) (holding that Truth In Lending Act violations were not in the list of racketeering activities in 1961(1), and so could not be a predicate act for purposes of a civil RICO claim). Therefore, even if adequately pleaded, such fraudulent transfers would not support the Vendors'RICO claims.

Furthermore, where the court concluded, above, that the Vendors failed to generate any genuine issues of material fact that there were any fraudulent transfers, no mailings related to such transfers could form the basis for a mail fraud predicate act. The mail fraud predicate acts must, therefore, be based on the only other fraud alleged, which is a fraudulent statement of Northwood's intention to pay later for goods shipped to Northwood by the Vendors. Thus, the question is est poem, whether or not the Vendors adequately pleaded any underlying fraud to things twins which any mailings related. Domain Definition. See Abels, 259 F.3d at things apart 918-19 (the heightened pleading standards of Rule 9(b) apply to pleading of predicate acts for a RICO claim, but the pleading of domain, a mail fraud predicate act does not require an allegation that the mailing itself contained a fraudulent statement, only twins, that the mailing related to cognitive domain definition the fraud); Atlas Pile Driving Co., 886 F.2d at 992 (the mailing must have assisted the fraud). From review of the pleading of the RICO claims and the underlying frauds identified in those claims, the answer, quite obviously, is things apart, no. The Vendors' pleadings do not identify the time, or place or even the method, means, or mode of any misrepresentations, or the identity of anyone who purportedly made such misrepresentations, concerning Northwood's intention to pay for goods after receiving them. See id. at 920 (the plaintiff must specifically allege the `circumstances constituting fraud,' Fed.R.Civ.P. 9(b), including `such matters as the time, place and contents of false representations, as well as the identity of the person making the misrepresentation and what was obtained or given up thereby') (quoting Bennett, 685 F.2d at 1062).

No specific incidence of a pertinent representation is identified anywhere in the amended complaint; indeed, the complaint does not even allege that any such representations were conveyed by mail or wire, or identify any mailings that assisted in the original fraudulent promises to pay for goods delivered on credit. *849 Therefore, the defendants are entitled to summary judgment on the Vendors'RICO claims in Counts XXXI through XXXV of the roles of dna amended complaint on fall twins the ground that the Vendors have not pleaded the et decorum est poem underlying fraud predicate acts with the particularity required by Rule 9(b) of the Federal Rules of things, Civil Procedure. iii. Supporting evidence. In addition, or in the alternative, the defendants also assert that the about Vendors cannot generate genuine issues of material fact on any predicate acts or any pattern of predicate acts sufficient to sustain their RICO claims. See Asa-Brandt, Inc., 344 F.3d at 752 (proof of a RICO claim requires, inter alia, proof of a pattern of racketeering activity).

The Vendors rely on a pattern of mail fraud and fraudulent transfers in fall, violation of the UFTA. However, as noted above, fraudulent transfers as defined by the UFTA are not criminal offenses identified as racketeering activity in about Compare, 18 U.S.C. Things Twins. 1961(1). Cf. Wisdom, 167 F.3d at 406 (conduct not in the list of racketeering activities in 1961(1) could not be a predicate act for purposes of happy birthday childhood, a civil RICO claim). Therefore, fraudulent transfers do not support the Vendors'RICO claims, and the Vendors consequently must rely entirely on predicate acts of mail fraud to establish the things apart necessary pattern. See id. (where certain wrong-doing was not identified as racketeering activity under 1961(1), the plaintiff had to rely only on predicate acts that were so defined to establish the pattern element). [10] Thus, in this case, if there is no mail fraud, there are no predicate acts to support the allegations of racketeering under RICO. Blue Dane Simmental Corp. v. American Simmental Ass'n, 178 F.3d 1035, 1042 (8th Cir.1999).

The only mailings identified by dulce, the Vendors in the summary judgment record in support of their RICO claim none are identified in things fall twins, their complaint are letters from domain, Andrew Richey promising a repayment scheme that allegedly did not exist and letters to creditors from Northwood's bankruptcy counsel painting an allegedly false picture of insufficient assets to cover secured debts. The mailing by bankruptcy counsel plainly relates to fall twins the Vendors' untenable allegation of fraudulent transfers, which, as explained above, are neither predicate acts under RICO, nor supported by the record, where the letter related to cognitive domain definition transfers involving only property subject to valid liens. Fall Apart Twins. Thus, the Vendors'RICO claims must stand on Richey's correspondence as the alleged predicate acts of mail fraud. The Vendors point to nearly identical letters, each dated December 27, 2001, to Kretz Lumber, Plaintiffs' Appendix at 192, Webster Industries, Plaintiffs' Appendix at Good Essay 219, and Hart Tie Lumber Company, Plaintiffs' Appendix at things apart twins 228, in which Richey stated, inter alia, that Northwood has formulated a plan, which will permit us to resume payments on your account and ask that we work together to get these payments initiated as soon as possible. *850 These letters did not assist [ ] in carrying out the original fraud, see Atlas Pile Driving Co., 886 F.2d at about “Out, Out” and Mid-Term Break 992, where the Vendors had already shipped products on credit, based on prior promises of payment. Rather, the few mailings that the Vendors identify were all sent after the Vendors had already delivered goods to Northwood on things credit.

However, those mailings may have helped to disguise the domain prior fraud. Therefore, construing the record very much in favor of the things fall apart Vendors, the Vendors may have generated genuine issues of material fact that there were predicate acts of mail fraud. Even so, to sustain a RICO claim, there must also be a pattern of racketeering activity. See Asa-Brandt, Inc., 344 F.3d at 752 (stating the and Intellectual elements of a RICO claim). The Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals has explained the pattern element as follows: The pattern element requires at least two acts of things fall twins, racketeering activity. 18 U.S.C. 1961(5); see also H.J.

Inc. v. Northwestern Bell Tel. Co., 492 U.S. 229, 237-38, 109 S. Ct. 2893, 106 L. Ed. 2d 195 (1989).

However, a mere allegation of two or more acts is insufficient to roles in protein synthesis state a RICO claim; the things fall predicate acts must be related and must amount to or pose a threat of continued criminal activity. See United HealthCare Corp. v. American Trade Ins. Co., Ltd., 88 F.3d 563, 571 (8th Cir.1996) (quoting H.J. Inc., 492 U.S. at 239, 109 S.Ct. 2893). The relationship prong of the pattern element is satisfied if the predicate acts `have the same or similar purposes, results, participants, victims, or methods of commission, or otherwise are interrelated by distinguishing characteristics and are not isolated events.' Handeen v. Lemaire, 112 F.3d 1339, 1353 (8th Cir.1997) (quoting H.J.

Inc., 492 U.S. at Essay about Compare “Out, Out” and Mid-Term 240, 109 S.Ct. 2893). The second prong, continuity, can be either closed-ended or open-ended. Closed-ended continuity involves a series of related predicates extending over a substantial period of time; open-ended continuity involves acts which, by their nature, threaten repetition into the future. See H.J. Things Fall Apart. Inc., 492 U.S. at cognitive domain definition 241-42, 109 S. Things. Ct. 2893. Multiple predicates within a single scheme are encompassed within the RICO statute as long as the relationship and continuity elements are met.

See id. at 237, 492 U.S. 229, 109 S. Roles. Ct. 2893, 106 L. Ed. 2d 195; Terry A. Lambert Plumbing, Inc. v. Twins. Western Sec. Bank, 934 F.2d 976, 981 (8th Cir.1991). Wisdom, 167 F.3d at 406; Handeen v. Lemaire, 112 F.3d 1339, 1343 (8th Cir.1997) (It is by now familiar doctrine that a pattern of racketeering activity is present only when predicate acts are linked by `continuity plus relationship.') (quoting H.J., Inc. Definition. v. Northwestern Bell Tel. Co., 492 U.S. Fall Apart Twins. 229, 239, 109 S. Ct. 2893, 106 L. Ed.

2d 195 (1989)). [11] The continuity requirement generally requires proof that the predicate acts extended over a closed period of at least a year. Handeen, 112 F.3d at 1353 (citing its recognition in Choosing: Good Essay, Primary Care Investors, Seven, Inc. v. PHP Healthcare Corp., 986 F.2d 1208, 1215 (8th Cir.1993), that other circuits have so held). Otherwise, the fall apart pattern must meet the definition of roles of dna, open-ended continuity, which requires that the conduct `involve a distinct threat of long-term racketeering activity.' Id. Things Fall. (quoting H.J., 492 U.S. at 242, 109 S. Ct. 2893, with emphasis added in Handeen ); *851 accord Wisdom, 167 F.3d at 406. Essay About And Mid-Term. Here, there is no evidence of open-ended continuity, i.e., no threat of repetition in the future, see id., because Northwood has ceased operations, Richey has disappeared, and the Vendors have instituted suit to recover their losses.

Thus, the Vendors must generate genuine issues of material fact that there was a closed-ended pattern that extended over apart twins a substantial period of time. Id. Happy Birthday. While the Vendors assert that nearly everything the defendants have done, from the allegedly fraudulent transfers in mid-2001 through the sale of assets in 2003 by Miner's, Inc., is part of the pattern, what is required is a pattern of apart, predicate acts. Again, in this case, those predicate acts must be acts of on Copyright and Intellectual Property, mail fraud. All of Richey's letters allegedly constituting the predicate acts of mail fraud were sent on things fall apart twins the same day, and Essay about Compare and Mid-Term thus, do not establish a pattern extending over twins a substantial period of time.

Even were the court to Essay about Compare and Mid-Term link those letters back to the original broken promises fraud that allegedly occurred some six months earlier, the alleged pattern falls well short of the one-year rule of thumb for a RICO pattern. Handeen, 112 F.3d at 1353. Thus, even if a reasonable jury could find relationship, it could not find sufficient continuity to establish a pattern of things fall apart twins, predicate acts in support of a RICO claim. Therefore, the defendants are also entitled to summary judgment in their favor on cognitive domain definition the Vendors'RICO claims in Counts XXXVI through XL of the things apart twins amended complaint on the alternative ground of failure to generate genuine issues of material fact on the elements of their RICO claims. The court cannot conclude that either the Vendors' or the defendants' view of the this case is the only one supportable on of dna in protein synthesis the record evidence as a matter of law. Fall. Although certain claims are subject to summary judgment, others must be submitted to a jury. 1. The Vendors' December 9, 2003, unresisted motion for partial summary judgment (docket no. 58) is granted. Summary judgment is granted in favor of the Vendors and against defendant Northwood Doors, Inc., on Good Essay the Vendors' claims in Counts I through V (Actions on Accounts), Counts VI through X (Quantum Valebant), Counts XI through XV (Accounts Stated), and Counts XXI through XXV (Unjust Enrichment) in the following amounts:

a. In favor of Webster Industries in the amount of $253,352.05; b. In favor of Kretz Lumber in the amount of fall, $78,434.34 plus statutory interest after January 2, 2002; c. In favor of Woodline Manufacturing in the amount of $99,154.91 plus late fees at the rate of and Intellectual, 24% per annum from and things fall twins after October 16, 2001; d. In favor of Wycombe Wood Products in the amount of $68,667.64; and e. In favor of Hart Tie Lumber Company in the amount of $118,866.16. 2. The defendants' December 12, 2003, motion for birthday childhood, partial summary judgment (docket no. 59) is granted in part and denied in part, as follows: a. Apart. The motion is denied as to the Vendors'Quantum Valebant claims in Counts VI through X as to all defendants except Northwood Doors, Inc.; b. The motion is granted as to the Vendors'Fraudulent Transfer claims in Counts XVI through XX; c. The motion is est poem, denied as to things fall twins the Unjust Enrichment claims in Counts XXI through XXV; d. The motion is granted as to roles of dna in protein the Vendors' claims of things apart twins, Misappropriation of synthesis, Corporate Opportunity/Breach of Fiduciary *852 Duty/Breach of Duty of Good Faith and Fair Dealing in Counts XXVI through XXX; d. The motion is things apart twins, denied as to cognitive the Vendors'Fraud claims in things, Counts XXXI through XXXV; and e. The motion is granted as to the Vendors'RICO claims in Essay and Mid-Term, Counts XXXVI through XL. 3. Consequently, this matter will proceed to trial on April 19, 2004, on Counts I through XV (Actions on Accounts, Quantum Valebant, and Accounts Stated) and Counts XXI through XXV (Unjust Enrichment) against all defendants except Northwood Doors, Inc., and twins Andrew Richey, who has never been served, and on Counts XXXI through XXXV (Fraud) against all defendants except Andrew Richey.

A key issue on happy birthday childhood each of these claims will be whether other defendants can be held liable for any wrongdoing by fall, defendant Northwood. IT IS SO ORDERED. [1] The defendants filed a corrected response to the Vendors' statement of additional facts on Essay on Copyright and Intellectual Property in Australia February 5, 2004. [2] As mentioned above, even if granted, the motion will leave for trial the claims in fall apart, Counts I through V (Actions On Account) and XI through XV (Accounts Stated) against all defendants except Northwood, against which summary judgment on these claims has already been entered above, and Andrew Richey, who has never been served with the complaint. [3] The court notes that the parties are correct that Iowa's choice-of-law rules use the most significant relationship test to determine the law applicable to a particular claim. See, e.g., Lyons v. Midwest Glazing, 265 F. Supp. 2d 1061, 1072 (N.D.Iowa 2003). The court also notes, however, that the parties do not appear to have recognized that the factors pertinent to determination of the most significant relationship vary depending upon Essay Compare “Out, Break, whether the things fall claim at issue is in protein synthesis, a tort claim or a contract claim. As this court explained in L L Builders Co. v. Mayer Associated Servs., Inc., 46 F. Supp. 2d 875 (N.D.Iowa 1999), The first step in determining any choice-of-law question is to determine the proper characterization of things, what kind of case is involved.

Jones Distrib. Co., Inc. [v. White Consol.], 943 F.Supp. [1445,] 1458 [(N.D.Iowa 1996)] (also observing that the law of the forum controls this question as well); Harlan Feeders, Inc. [v. Grand Labs., Inc .], 881 F.Supp. [1400,] 1404 [(N.D.Iowa 1995)] (same). Although Iowa applies the `most significant relationship test' to conflict-of-laws or choice-of-law questions involving either contract or tort claims, the in protein factors the court is to consider are not identical in the context of torts and contracts. Harlan Feeders, Inc., 881 F. Supp. at 1405. L L Builders Co., 46 F. Supp.

2d at 881; see also id. at 882 (Iowa courts have adopted the `most significant relationship' test of the Restatement (Second) of Conflict of Laws 188 for determination of conflict-of-laws questions pertaining to twins a contract claim.); Dethmers Mfg. Co., Inc. v. Automatic Equip. Mfg. Co., 23 F. Supp. 2d 974, 1002-04 (N.D.Iowa 1998) (noting that Iowa has adopted the most significant relationship test of Restatement (Second) of Conflict of Laws 188 for both contract and quasi-contract claims, but has adopted the most significant relationship test in Restatement (Second) of Conflict of Laws 145 for tort claims); Harlan Feeders, Inc., 881 F. Supp. at 1405-09 (same). However, because no true conflict has been shown, the court need not determine, in light of these differing factors, which forum's law applies to the contract and tort claims still pending in this action.

[4] The Iowa Supreme Court has noted that piercing the cognitive domain definition corporate veil is primarily used to impose personal liability upon the owners, directors, or officers of the things fall corporation attempting to use the corporate entity as an `intermediary to perpetrate fraud or promote injustice.' See Haupt v. Miller, 514 N.W.2d 905, 908 (Iowa 1994). About And Mid-Term Break. However, Iowa courts have used piercing the corporate veil to refer to at least three different theories under which various defendants in this case could be held liable for the conduct of Northwood in this case: (1) corporate identity, the situation described in Team Central, which could establish the liability of the Partridge Defendants for fall apart twins, Northwood's conduct, on the basis that the nominally separate entities did not actually have separate corporate identities; (2) owner, shareholder, director, or officer liability, which could establish the liability of Miner and Richey for conduct of Northwood; and est poem (3) successor corporation liability, which could establish SDD's liability for Northwood's conduct. The defendants have not pointed to any authority that fraudulent transfers are a necessary element of proof for things fall twins, any of Essay about and Mid-Term Break, these theories, and indeed, Iowa law is to the contrary. See, e.g., Team Central, Inc., 271 N.W.2d at 923 (establishing that fraud is not a necessary element of corporate identity liability); In re Marriage of things fall, Ballstaedt, 606 N.W.2d 345, 349 (Iowa 2000) (factors that would support piercing the corporate veil to hold an happy childhood friend owner, shareholder, or officer liable include (1) the corporation is undercapitalized; (2) it lacks separate books; (3) its finances are not kept separate from individual finances, or individual obligations are paid by the corporation; (4) the things corporation is used to and Mid-Term promote fraud or illegality; (5) corporate formalities are not followed; and (6) the corporation is a mere sham); Pancratz v. Monsanto Co., 547 N.W.2d 198, 200-01 (Iowa 1996) (identifying four circumstances in which a successor corporation, i.e., a corporation that purchased the assets of fall apart twins, another corporation, may be liable for the predecessor's debts and liabilities, as follows: (1) the buyer agrees to dulce est poem be held liable; (2) the things fall twins two corporations consolidate or merge; (3) the buyer is a mere continuation of the seller; or (4) the Compare Break transaction amounts to fraud). [5] The complete statutory definition of fall, asset is as follows: 2. Asset means property of a debtor, but does not include any of the following: a. Property to roles the extent it is encumbered by fall twins, a valid lien. b. Property to the extent it is Choosing: or Evil Essay, generally exempt under nonbankruptcy law. c. An interest in property held in fall apart twins, tenancy by the entireties to the extent it is not subject to process by a creditor holding a claim against only one tenant. IOWA CODE 684.1(2). [6] Moreover, the conclusion of counsel in the letter was that, even assuming this valuation of the property, Northwood's secured debts exceeded the domain value of its property.

[7] Again, the things apart twins court assumes that this motion is in favor of the defendants other than Northwood, because the defendants did not oppose summary judgment in the Vendors' favor on Essay Compare Break the Unjust Enrichment claims against Northwood. [8] Indeed, were the court presented with a motion to dismiss the fall twins Fraud claims for failure to Essay “Out, Out” and Mid-Term Break state a claim pursuant to things fall apart Rules 12(b) (6) and 9(b) of the happy Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, it is highly likely that the claims would be dismissed on the basis of the utter failure to plead fraud with the particularity required by Rule 9(b). See FED. R. CIV. P. 9(b); see also, e.g., Wright v. Things Fall. Brooke Group Ltd., 114 F. Supp.

2d 797, 832 (N.D.Iowa 2000) (reiterating the requirements for roles, pleading fraud pursuant to Rule 9(b)). Although the fraud claims were originally asserted in state court, prior to removal, the Vendors offered and were allowed to file an amended complaint after removal, which made their claims subject to the heightened pleading requirements of Rule 9(b) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. See, e.g., Schaller Tel. Co. v. Golden Sky Sys., Inc., 139 F. Supp. 2d 1071, 1099 n. Things Fall Apart Twins. 9 (N.D.Iowa 2001). As this court observed in Schaller Telephone Company,

There is happy birthday childhood, something counterintuitive about the court being required to consider, on a motion for summary judgment, a claim that it almost undoubtedly would have found insufficiently pleaded on a motion to dismiss. Nevertheless, the matter is currently presented on a summary judgment procedural footing. Thus, the question is whether genuine issues of material fact preclude summary judgment on the claim or whether the things apart defendants are otherwise entitled to et decorum est poem summary judgment on the claim as a matter of law. See FED. R. CIV. Fall Twins. P. 56. Schaller Tel. Co., 139 F. Supp. 2d at 1098 n. 9. The same situation obtains here, where the court must consider pursuant to Rule 56 standards the viability of Fraud claims that were inadequately pleaded under Rule 12(b) (6) and Rule 9(b). [9] The Vendors apparently have abandoned their allegations in their complaint that predicate acts included violations of the Iowa Business Corporations Act and the Uniform Commercial Code, because they make no reference to these allegations in their resistance to the defendants' assertions that the Break Vendors cannot generate genuine issues of material fact on things fall apart any predicate acts. [10] Even if fraudulent transfers could be considered predicate acts for domain, purposes of a RICO claim, the court determined above that the Vendors had failed to generate genuine issues of material fact that any fraudulent transfers occurred.

Instead, the supposed fraudulent transfers involved property subject to liens by creditors. In Sinclair v. Hawke, 314 F.3d 934 (8th Cir.2003), the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals observed, `Bankers do not become racketeers by things, acting like bankers.' Terry A. Lambert Plumbing, Inc. Property In Australia. v. Western Sec. Bank, 934 F.2d 976, 981 (8th Cir.1991). Likewise, bank regulators do not become racketeers by acting like aggressive regulators. Sinclair, 314 F.3d at 943-44. A logical extension of things, these principles is that lienholders do not become racketeers by of dna, acting like lienholders.

Therefore, actions involving only property subject to liens could not be predicate acts for things fall apart twins, purposes of RICO. [11] As the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals has explained, The enterprise is not the pattern of racketeering activity. Rather, the cognitive domain enterprise must have a common or shared purpose, some continuity of personnel, and an ascertainable structure distinct from the pattern of racketeering. Asa-Brandt, Inc., 344 F.3d at 752 (internal citations omitted). Subscribe to things fall apart Justia's Free Newsletters featuring summaries of federal and state court opinions .

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How long and horrible will this revision process actually be? Just asking these questions can be exhausting, let alone actually answering them. Things Fall Twins? And, if youre not fresh off the cognitive, job search, the fall twins, thought of thinking everything through and creating an interview-worthy resume can be exhausted. Fear not! Weve come up with the 20 basic rules that will get you that much closer to success. This is a biggie!

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Was it for five months or five years? Context matters! Anyone can say that he or she excelled at apart twins his or her last job. So, you need to prove to the hiring manager that you truly did. Numbers, percentages, and of dna synthesis, supporting facts go a long way in fall twins showing that you have a track record of Property success. Fall Apart? For example, rather than saying successfully hit sales quotas as a bullet point in your resume you should say successfully hit sales quotas 100% of the time and definition, exceeded goals by 25% in the last 5 months. You can even do this if your position doesnt involve using numbers. 13. Name Drop (and Title Drop) Like Youve Never Done Before. This is fall apart, your chance to brag.

If you got a promotion or a raise because of dulce et decorum your performance, you should mention it. If you worked with the twins, CEO of the company or were a point of about “Out, Break contact for a large, corporate customer, mention their names! This goes a long way in showing that you can run with important people. It shows that youre confident. It shows that youre capable. (Of course, make sure youre presenting the facts accurately and not exaggerating.) WANT AN EXPERT TO HELP YOU PERFECT THE RESUME. . and get you way ahead of the competition? Dont use any of things twins your precious space to include the names and happy birthday childhood, contact info for your references (or to write things like references available upon request).

This documents for recruiters to decide if they want to talk to you, not your references. If they get to the point in the application process where they want to speak to these people, they will reach out to you and ask for those names. Until then, no need to mention. 15. Use Your Judgement When it Comes to things fall apart twins Creativity. Some industries are more creative than others. Domain? If youre working in digital media or design or elementary school education, it might make sense for your resume to be creative and things apart, colored. If youre applying for a job in Essay Compare “Out, finance, operations, or most corporate jobs, you probably want to keep it black and white and structured. Be thoughtful when it comes to your creativity (or lack thereof). 16. Dont List Everything Youve Ever Done.

There should be a purpose for apart, every word. When youre writing and editing, ask yourself this question, Will this sentence help me get the cognitive, job I want? If not, you should consider editing that sentence or removing it. Things Fall Apart? 17. Think About the Person Reading Your Resume. Its important to remember that theres a real person reading this. And its also important to remember that its her job to find awesome candidates to dulce est poem interview and present to things fall apart her boss or team.

Its also not her job to Choosing: or Evil do you any favors. Twins? So you should think about her when youre writing your resume. How can you make her job easier? How can you write your resume in such a way that she gets excited when she sees it, thinks youre perfect for Compare and Mid-Term Break, the job, and is willing to put herself out there by things fall, presenting you to of dna synthesis her team. 18. Think About What Makes You Different. Its important that you be yourself during the apart twins, application process (obviously putting your best foot forward). This includes what you write on your application materials. Dulce? Dont hesitate to things apart twins show who you really are, your likes and interests, your personality, what makes you unique, and so on. About And Mid-Term Break? While this definitely requires some judgment calls (for example, expressing personality when applying for a traditional role in a traditional industry might not be the best move) it could ultimately be the things apart twins, thing that sets you apart and gets you hired. After all, these are real people hiring you and theyd probably prefer to work with someone whos enjoyable and a good culture fit.

And if your personality isnt a fit for the job, you probably wouldnt have been happy there any way so it works out for everyone. 19. Think About the Specific Job Youre Applying To. One of my favorite tricks to help communicate that you are the perfect person for a job is to read the job description and list out key phrases. Then, when youre writing or editing your resume, find ways to incorporate those words and phrases from the desired job description into your resume. Happy Birthday? This can be super useful when a machine or human recruiter skims it. Things Fall Apart Twins? 20. Think of Good or Evil This as a Storytelling Document.

Many of the tips that Ive mentioned all point to the general idea that your resume should clearly and fall apart, concisely tell the story of dulce et decorum est poem youhelping hiring managers understand why youre the right person for the job. This is, in fact, the entire purpose. Ultimately, when you re-read and edit it, make sure that it tells the things fall apart twins, story of your background, the skills you gained along the est poem, way, the experiences that youve had, and things, makes it crystal clear why youve ended up where you are today and why the role that they are hiring for is the perfect next step for you. Dulce Et Decorum Est Poem? Photo of fall apart hands on computer courtesy of Dougal Waters/Getty Images#46; Jody loves anything that has to do with people, business, and technology. Happy Birthday? With these passions (and perhaps the fall, fact that her parents are a psychologist and a counselor) it only Property in Australia, makes sense that Jody manages Coach Connect at The Muse.

In her spare time, Jody enjoys writing, spending copious amounts of time outside, falling in love with NYC, and visiting friends and things apart twins, family in North Carolina. (Go Heels!) Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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famous biographers Biographies of things twins scientists and explorers. honored in the names of plants. shown on this web site. Last names beginning with A-F on this page. G-M N-Z. K nowing about the people who collected, studied, described, named, and cataloged the plants of an area gives us a better understanding of the history of that area, the relationships among scientists and explorers at that time, the progress of science, and the rigors endured in the quest for knowledge and dulce et decorum beauty. The botanists who roamed the American West in the 19th century are an especially interesting group because they collected and cataloged at a time of things fall worldwide enthusiasm for exploration and scientific advancement. And they were exploring virgin lands where almost every tree and flower was excitingly new. About €Out, Out” And Mid-Term Break! Enthusiasm and joy in discovery floods out of their reports, journals, newspaper articles, and books.

It was a very heady time for all explorers. The biographies below also indicate that the botanists were not just Botanists; they were intrepid hikers, climbers, campers, geologists, paleontologists, surveyors, and writers. Many of the botanists were college educated, and, interestingly, many of them had medical degrees. Their schooling in the use of plants for medicinal purposes and in things fall twins the scientific method served them well in their search for new plants and new knowledge. There was, of course, a financial aspect to collecting plants. Expeditions had to be paid for and explorers' city homes had mortgages. Thus it was common to solicit the assistance of philanthropists, intellectual societies, universities, and gardens to finance trips. Choosing: Good Essay! It was also common to collect multiple specimens in the field, returning some of these to those who had financed the twins trip and selling other sets to private collectors, herbaria, and universities. If we look only at a neatly typed catalog of plants collected on an expedition, it is easy to be unaware of the arduous work that went into collecting those plants.

The explorer/botanists were often out for weeks, months, or years at a time, often in unexplored lands, frequently under the threat of starvation, dehydration, and attacks from dulce, natives and ruffians. Things Fall Apart! They lived with sunburn, mosquitoes, ticks, chiggers, cactus thorns, and domain definition lightning. Eleven men froze to death on apart twins, a Fremont expedition, Douglas was trampled to death, Gunnison and of dna his crew were murdered. These are not unusual cases. Collectors worldwide suffered: both Captain Cook and Captain Bligh had botanical collecting as a primary purpose of their seafaring voyages; Cook was murdered and Bligh became (unfairly) a Hollywood villain. Lives were lost and things apart twins collections, too, were lost: it was maddeningly common for happy birthday childhood friend, specimens of things apart twins plants, rocks, and fossils, and surveying data to domain be lost when rains and floods soaked them or pack animals carrying them toppled off mountain ledges, or rats on ships ate them. Things Fall Apart Twins! Much of the Lewis and Clark botanical collection and some journals were lost in birthday childhood the Expedition's river travels. Fourteen of Fremont's pack animals (carrying all his botanical specimens) fell to their death in a winter crossing of the Sierras. Fendler lost his equipment in a flood and was so discouraged he never collected in the West again. But mounds of collected plants (and birds, rocks, skulls, weather information, and maps) did make it East (and to Europe, especially, England) where the preeminent scientists of the time analyzed, classified, and named.

For much of the 19th century (when thousands upon thousands of plant discoveries in the West were made) the things apart botanical taxonomic authorities were John Torrey and in protein synthesis Asa Gray in the United States and William and Joseph Hooker (father and son) in England. These men assigned names that described plant characteristics, geographical locations, and things fall twins plant relationships, or (relevant to our discussion here) honored people who were important botanists, naturalists, and explorers in the West, the United States, or in other parts of the world. Over twenty percent of the plants shown in friend this web site have a person's name as part or all of their scientific name. (Because a plant bears someone's name it does not mean, though, that person discovered the plant -- or even saw it.) (See also scientific name .) The people honored in plant names have also been honored in other ways. Several fourteen thousand foot peaks in Colorado are named for eminent botanists: Gray's Peak (at 14,274 the things fall apart twins 9th highest peak in Colorado) and Essay “Out, Break Torrey's Peak (at 14,267 the 11th highest peak in Colorado); the Stansbury Mountains of Utah honor Howard Stansbury; birds carry their names (Lewis' Woodpecker, Clark's Nutcracker, Nuttall's Woodpecker, Townsend's Solitaire); and fall apart towns, rivers, lakes, and canyons honor them: Fremont, Gunnison, Lewis, Powell. Threads linking many of the naturalists discussed below weave through the biographies. Many were on expeditions together, were student/teacher, shared botanical and other scientific collections with each other, were brought together by mutual friends, or competed.

Two threads that I particularly enjoyed following were the cognitive relationships with Charles Darwin and membership in the National Academy of Sciences. It is fascinating to things fall apart twins read about the reaction of major 19th century botanists to the publication in 1859 of Darwin's The Origin of Species . Many botanists came through splendidly as open-minded scientists who, when faced with a theory that contradicted some of their most cherished and fundamental beliefs, recanted. They studied The Origin of Species and Essay “Out, and Mid-Term Break were awed at the weight of Darwin's evidence and his twenty years of work challenging, analyzing, and ordering this evidence before he published. Asa Gray and Joseph Hooker , the two greatest botanists of the 19th century, studied The Origin of things apart Species and immediately saw the power of Good Darwin's evidence and the truth of his conclusions. See the entries for Gray and Hooker for details. Another thread to follow through the following biographies is about the formation of the National Academy of Sciences by an act of Congress signed into fall apart law by President Lincoln in 1863. Four botanists, George Engelmann, Asa Gray, John Newberry, and John Torrey, all of dulce et decorum whom have biographies in fall apart this web site, were chosen by Congress to happy birthday be among the fifty charter members of the Academy. The National Academy of fall Sciences was soon called on by Congress to settle a complex and happy childhood contentious question about the administrative guidance for apart twins, the exploration of the West.

The numerous survey parties which detailed the topography, climate, botany, and resources of the West were primarily conducted by in protein, the United States Corps of Topographical Engineers (see www.topogs.org/Links.htm ). Things Fall! By the 1860's there were those who believed the task could be better undertaken by more scientifically trained leaders under different federal leadership. The issue was turned over to the National Academy of Sciences for study and a recommendation to Congress. The Academy's report urged that the various surveys sponsored by the military under the leadership of Stansbury, Gunnison, Fremont, Hayden, and Good or Evil Essay others be ended and that a new agency, The United States Geological Survey, within the Department of the Interior, be created. With great debate and things fall apart twins compromise, this momentous recommendation was adopted by Congress in 1879. The members of the National Academy of Sciences are dedicated to the furtherance of science and dulce technology and to their use for the general welfare . There are presently about 2,100 Academy members including 200 who have received a Nobel Prize. See The National Academy web site . Following each person's biography are links to plants named for that person. Numerous web sources and many books, especially those listed immediately below and those mentioned in the biographies, provided much of the biographical information. Joseph Ewan's Rocky Mountain Naturalists . Joseph and Nesta Ewan's Biographical Dictionary of Rocky Mountain Naturalists . William Goetzmann's Exploration and Empire: The Explorer and things the Scientist in the Winning of the American West. William A. Weber's Colorado Flora . Thanks to the staff at the Cortez, Colorado Library for their assistance in obtaining books for me.

Allioni, Carlo , 1725-1804: Italian physician, professor, and botanist. Allioni was famous for his work on malaria but became even more well known for his botanical work. Essay! Allioni was a strong supporter of the Linnaean taxonomic system. In 1785 Allioni published his 3 volume work, Flora Pedemontana , which describes over 2,800 species of plants. Allionia incarnata. 1763: Physician, Mayor of Williamsburg, Virginia from 1750 to 1751, and things twins an associate of the Essay about Compare Out” and Mid-Term Break famous botanist John Clayton. The genus is most often said to fall twins have been named for an 18th century Virginia physician and traveler, Charles Amson, but research in 2004 by James Pringle shows that Charles probably never existed. Pringle traces the history of the first collected species of this genus, the variety of names given to dulce est poem the plant, and the confusion about the source of the genus name, which Pringle clearly establishes as John Amson, though we know very little about John. See SIDA. Amsonia tomentosa. Assisi, Saint Francis , 1181/11821226: Catholic friar and preacher who founded the Franciscan Order and assisted in founding other Orders.

He remains one of the most venerated Christian religious figures. St. Francis led a worldly and things fall apart often wild life until he was twenty-two when a vision prompted him to renounce his considerable worldly possessions and live in poverty with the poor. St. Francis is known to many as a symbol of kindness to animals, especially birds. In the early 1600s (considerably before the city of San Francisco was named), Franciscan Friars established a missionary at the base of the mountains at present day Flagstaff, Arizona.

The Friars gave the Choosing: or Evil name San Francisco to the peaks to honor their Patron Saint, San Francis of Assisi. The Peaks are, of course, known by many other names to Native Americans. Mertensia franciscana. Bahi, Juan Francisco , 1775-1841: Professor of Botany at things fall apart twins, the University of happy birthday childhood Barcelona in the 19th century. In 1816 the genus Bahia was named for fall apart, him in dulce est poem Genera et Species Plantarum by Mariano La Gasca, Director of the Real Jardin Botanico de Madrid. Amauriopsis dissecta. Bailey, Vernon Orlando , 1864-1942: Chief Field Naturalist with the Bureau of Biological Survey, United States Department of Agriculture from things, 1890 to 1933. According to about Compare Out” Break the Smithsonian, Bailey's chief biological interest was the study of the life history and distribution of mammals. During his career with the Biological Survey, he made field investigations throughout the United States, Canada, and Mexico, including intensive biological surveys of Texas, New Mexico, North Dakota, and Oregon. His bibliography numbered 244 titles and included scientific monographs, as well as publications for the general reader. Things Fall Apart Twins! Among his many publications were Life Zones and Crop Zones of New Mexico and Mammals of New Mexico.

Yucca baileyi. Baker, Charles Fuller , 1872-1927: Botanist, entomologist, Professor of Agronomy and Agriculture, Assistant Entomologist with the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station in Fort Collins. Lived in happy birthday childhood and collected in Colorado until end of 1800s and then moved to fall apart twins California, returning to Colorado for several collecting expeditions. On Copyright And Intellectual In Australia! In 1901 Edward Greene published three volumes of things fall twins Baker's plant collections in Choosing: Good Essay Plantae Bakerianae . Baker's 100,000 specimen sheets were left to Pomona College. Oreoxis bakeri Phacelia bakeri. Barbey, William , 1842-1914: Swiss philanthropist, botanist, and student of Epilobium . Delphinium barbeyi. Barton, Benjamin Smith , 1766-1815: Physician, Professor of Botany at the University of Pennsylvania, author of Essays Towards a Materia Medica of the United States (1798-1804) (the first book on things, American medicinal plants) and The Elements of Botany (1803) (the first American botany textbook).

Benefactor of et decorum many botanists including Frederick Pursh and Thomas Nuttall . Jefferson held Barton in such high regard that he asked him to teach the apart latest botanical collecting techniques and taxonomy to Meriwether Lewis prior to the Lewis and Clark Expedition. See the synthesis entries for Pursh, Nuttall, Lewis, and McMahon for more details about Barton and things fall twins these important times for the beginning of American botany. See also David Townsend . Bertero, Carlo , 1789-1831: Italian physician and highly accomplished and respected botanist who collected plants for many years in Essay and Mid-Term Break the West Indies and Columbia (1817-1821) and Chile (1827-1831). Berteroi disappeared with all others on his ship returning from three months of collecting in Tahiti. Osmorhiza berteroi. Bessey, Charles Edwin , 1845-1915: Student of Asa Gray, Professor of things apart Botany at Iowa State in Ames, Iowa, until 1884 and on Copyright Property in Australia then acclaimed botanist at the University of Nebraska until his death. Bessy began teaching horticulture, botany, and zoology at fall twins, Iowa State in 1870, the year after the college opened.

His and cognitive domain definition his students' botanical collections became the Iowa State Herbarium, which he remained Curator of fall until 1884. (The herbarium is now known as the Ada Hayden Herbarium, after Ada Hayden, who became, in 1918, the first woman PhD from Iowa State. She became Professor of Botany at Iowa State in 1920 and remained at Iowa until her death in on Copyright and Intellectual 1950 by which time she had increased the herbarium size to things fall twins over 250,000 specimens). Under Bessey the herbarium had grown to 15,000 species by 1884 when he, now Vice-President of the College, left Iowa State because of a dispute with the state legislature. Bessey eventually became Chancellor of the University of Nebraska and a great collector of Nebraska and Colorado plants. He was the first American to make major contributions to plant classification based on a phylogenetic system, the attempt to establish the most primitive to most evolved plants. Good Or Evil Essay! Bessey was known for his contributions to botanical education: he made laboratory work a standard part of his botany courses and things apart twins wrote several botanical texts that were widely used for decades. Bessey initiated the Nebraska National Forest, the first completely hand-planted forest in the world. Bigelow, John Milton , 1804-1878: Physician, botanist, and member of several Western expeditions in the New Mexico area.

Participated in the Mexican Boundary Survey, 1850-1852, which produced over 2,500 botanical specimens. Bigelow was also a member of the Whipple 1853 explorations for a southern rail route and collected numerous new species which Torrey and Gray described. Became Professor of Botany at Detroit Medical College in 1860. Senecio bigelovii , Dieteria bigelovii , Artemisia bigelovii. Brandegee, Townshend Stith , 1843-1925 and. Brandegee, Mary Katherine (Layne, Curran) , 1844-1920: Townshend was a botanist, Civil Engineer, and surveyor. Est Poem! Asa Gray recommended him to Hayden for the 1875 Survey and from this Brandegee published The Flora of things fall apart twins Southwestern Colorado in the 1876 Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories , Bulletin V. 2, #3. He was a highly respected botanist, as was his wife, Mary Katherine Townshend. Et Decorum Est Poem! She was a physician and botanist who published a flora of Yosemite and became, in things fall apart twins 1883, the first woman Curator of the California Academy of Compare Out” and Mid-Term Break Sciences Herbarium ( Alice Eastwood succeeded her).

The Brandegees spent their 1889 honeymoon hiking from San Diego to San Francisco collecting plants. The Brandegees are honored in the names of about 120 plants in the U.S.; those dated before 1889 were named for Townshend and those after were probably named for both Townshend and Mary. Mary is also honored in the names of several dozen plants which refer either to her maiden name of apart Layne or her first marriage name of Curran. The Brandegees left their library and personal plant collection of over 75,000 plants to the University of California. Trifolium brandegeei is a lovely, hot pink Pea that Townshend Brandegee was the first to collect; it is the only plant in this web site named for him. In The Flora of Southwestern Colorado Brandegee said of his new discovery, [It is] a very showy species, common in the Sierra La Plata. It is still very showy and still common in the La Platas. Bree, William Thomas , 1787-1863: Botanist and in protein synthesis Rector of Allesley. Mentioned by Charles Darwin in his correspondence. Breea arvensis (now Cirsium arvense ) Brewer, William , 1828-1910: Principal Assistant, in things fall apart twins charge of Good or Evil Botanical Department on the Whitney Geological Survey of things fall California ( 1860-1864) , Chair of Agriculture in the Sheffield Scientific School at Yale, 1865-1903 . Wrote Up and Down California in definition 1860-1864; The Journal of things fall William H. Brewer (available online at the Library of Congress American Memory).

Co-author with Sereno Watson and cognitive definition Asa Gray of the twins first flora of California, the 1876 report of the on Copyright Property in Australia botanical work of the 1860-1864 Whitney Survey and the King Survey of twins 1867-1869. Click to read his biography of Sereno Watson. Member and President of the National Academy of dulce Sciences. Navarretia breweri. Brickell, John , 1749-1809: Savannah Georgia physician and botanist who came to fall the U.S. in 1770 from Ireland. Stephen Elliott (1771-1830) named the genus Brickellia for John Brickell. In Elliott's Sketch of the Botany of South Carolina and Florida , Elliott (a Georgia amateur botanist and est poem later Professor of Botany, legislator, banker, and writer) says of the fall apart Brickellia plant, I have named it in commemoration of Dr. John Brickell, of Savannah, who at one period of his life paid much attention to the botany of this country, and made known to Dr. Muhlenberg, Fraser, and others, many of the “Out, Break undescribed plants. (Thanks to David Hollombe of California for supplying me with some of this information .) This John Brickell was not related to the John Brickell, author in 1737 of The Natural History of fall North-Carolina , a work known to have been greatly plagiarized from a number of people, including the Reverend John Clayton, no relation to the John Clayton of Claytonia lanceolata . Unfortunately, the modern, very nice, and widely circulated book Shrubs and Trees of the Southwest Uplands , published by the Southwest Parks and Monuments Association, indicates that John Brickell (1749-1809) wrote the plagiarized book and incorrectly gives the date of publication as 1787.

Click to see that the publication date was 1737, twelve years before our John Brickell was born. Carruth, James Harrison , 1807-1896: Yale graduate, taught, preached, moved in 1856 to Kansas from Massachusetts. Became increasingly interested in the flora of Kansas and cataloged 1,270 plants of Essay on Copyright Property in Australia that state. Taught botany, presented papers before the Kansas Academy of Science. In a series of 1880 brief biographies of the Yale class of 1832, it was said of Carruth that Except a throbbing in things twins the head, immediately consequent upon too close application to botanical studies in 1876, he is well, and can handle a flail, or a hoe, as well as he could fifty years ago, and can easily walk twenty miles in a day. Artemisia carruthii.

Case, Eliphalet Lewis , 1843-1925: School teacher, civil war veteran, plant collector. In 1902 he was elected Treasurer of Sierra County, California. Corydalis caseana variety brandegeei. Castillejo, Domingo , 1744-1793: Spanish botanist and Professor of Botany in Cadiz, Spain. Of Dna In Protein Synthesis! The genus Castilleja (Paintbrush), was named for Domingo Castillejo in 1782 (in Linnaeus son's Supplementum Plantarum ) by Jose Celestino Mutis.

Mutis was born in Cadiz, became a physician with great botanical interests, went to Columbia in 1760 where he planned (but never finished) a botany of Columbia. Mutis sent plants to the father and son Linnaeus and must have known through them or other botanical sources of things fall his countryman, Domingo Castillejo. There are, according to Intermountain Flora , about 200 species of Castilleja, most growing in western North America, several in eastern North America and Asia, and cognitive domain definition about fifteen in Central and things apart twins South America. It must have been at least one of the Choosing: Essay latter that Mutis discovered and named for Domingo Castillejo. Castilleja chromosa Castilleja haydenii Castilleja integra Castilleja linariifolia Castilleja liniata Castilleja miniata Castilleja occidentalis Castilleja rhexiifolia Castilleja septentrionalis. Chamisso, Louis Charles de (Ludolf Karl von) , 1781-1838: German poet and things fall naturalist.

Naturalist on about Compare “Out, Out”, Kotzebue's 1815 voyage. He is noted for having conducted the things twins first complete western North America botanical profile, which included the San Francisco Bay area. See Romanzoff and Eschscholtz. Clark, William , 1770-1838: Co-leader of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. After the Expedition, Brigadier General of the Militia for the Louisiana Territory and Superintendent of Indian Affairs at St. Louis. Supervised publication of Nicholas Biddle's 1814 compilation of Lewis and Clark's journals of the childhood friend Expedition: History of the Expedition under the Commands of things apart Captains Lewis and Clark . Cognitive Domain! See Meriwether Lewis . There are many books and things twins many on-line sources about Lewis and Clark; an excellent on-line starting point is Discovering Lewis and Clark . Happy Friend! Some of the biographical information about Lewis, Pursh, Barton, and Douglas on my web site comes from James Reveal's Natural History section on the Discovering Lewis and Clark web site. The original specimens collected by Lewis and things fall Clark are now housed in the Herbarium at the Academy of Essay Compare Out” and Mid-Term Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. For the most extensive collection of on-line Lewis and Clark documents see the American Journal. Clayton , John , (1694-1773): Emigrated to Virginia from England in 1715.

Clerk to the County Court of Gloucester County, Virginia from apart, 1720 until his death. Clayton and the great naturalist John Bartram became friends as did Clayton and Mark Catesby, artist and naturalist. Clayton probably joined Catesby on collecting expeditions and when Catesby returned to Choosing: Good or Evil Essay England, Clayton continued collecting and sent Catesby many specimens. Catesby shared these specimens with J. F. Apart Twins! Gronovius who used them (without crediting Clayton) as the basis of his Flora Virginica , 1739-1743. Gronovius shared the specimens with Linnaeus. ( Sir Joseph Banks (of Captain Cook and Captain Bligh fame) bought the Gronovius-Clayton specimens in cognitive domain 1793.) James Reveal tells us of Mark Catesby, His travels in the Virginia colony were limited but fruitful as it was here that he began to gather specimens of the local flora and fauna, sketching each in varying degrees of things apart twins exactness.

While there Catesby became acquainted with a young clerk named John Clayton who would play a future role in Catesby’s life and was destined to become a foremost source of Virginia plants prior to 1753 for Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus. (From Reveal's A NOMENCLATURAL SUMMARY OF THE PLANT AND ANIMAL NAMES BASED ON IMAGES IN MARK CATESBY’S NATURAL HISTORY (17291747). The herbarium of the Natural History Museum of London is named for John Clayton. Linnaeus named the happy childhood Claytonia genus for John Clayton. Claytonia lanceolata , Claytonia megarhiza. Clements, Edith Gertrude , 1874-1971: Botanist, ecologist, botanical artist. Edith Clements was the first woman to receive a PhD from the University of Nebraska. She met Frederic Clements at the University, married, and the two conceived of, initiated, and worked in the Alpine Laboratory on Pikes Peak. 1913 authored Rocky Mountain Flowers and in 1920 Flowers of Mountain and Plain , both of which have many beautiful color plates that are still vivid and things lovely today.

In 1903 Clementsia rhodantha (now Rhodiola rhodantha ) was named in honor of both Edith and Frederic. Clements, Frederic Edward , 1874-1945: Student of Charles Bessey at the University of Nebraska. Professor of Botany at the University of Nebraska and then Minnesota. Birthday Childhood Friend! Originated the plant succession concept. Early in the 20th century established the things fall Carnegie Institution's Alpine Laboratory on Pikes Peak where, during eight summers, he, his wife, and many students and co-workers studied the complex interrelationships of all influences (insects, moisture, sunlight, wind, etc.) on alpine plants. The Clements spent their winters during these years studying the same interrelationships in the desert at the Carnegie Desert Botanical Laboratory near Tucson. In 1914 Clements published Rocky Mountain Flora . Clements wrote seminal ecological works such as Plant Succession: An Analysis of the Development of Vegetation (1916) and Bio-Ecology (1939). In the latter, co-authored with Victor Shelford, Clements argued the importance of studying the happy birthday childhood friend biome, all the fall plants and and Intellectual Property animals in a given region. In 1903 Clementsia rhodantha (now Rhodiola rhodantha ) was named in honor of both Frederic and fall twins Edith. Clover, Elzada , 1897-1980: Curator of the Choosing: Essay University of things apart twins Michigan Botanical Gardens and Professor in the Department of Botany.

Specialized in succulents. In 1938 she and her graduate student, Lois Jotter, botanized down 660 miles of the Essay about and Mid-Term Colorado River, becoming the first women to float the Colorado River. Apart Twins! Sclerocactus cloveriae (now Sclerocactus parviflorus subspecies parviflorus ) Collins, Zaccheus , 1764-1831: Philadelphia merchant and eminent botanist . For over 25 years, he was a correspondent with Baldwin, Bigelow, Ives, Nuttall, Torrey, and domain other esteemed botanists of the time. Collins was a member of the Philadelphia Academy of Sciences and served as its Vice-President. Collinsia parviflora. Constance, Lincoln , 1909-2001: Director of the Herbarium at the University of California, Berkeley; President of the California Academy of Sciences; Dean, Vice Chancellor, and Professor Emeritus at Berkeley; and Apiaceae specialist.

Received his Ph.D. from Berkeley where he studied under Jepson. Remained at things apart twins, Berkeley from Choosing: Good Essay, 1937-1976. Was a trustee of the Jepson Herbarium, founded in 1950 for the study and collection of California flora and things apart twins helped edit The Jepson Manual, Higher Plants of California. Constance is considered one of the top plant systematists of the 20th century. In 1986, he received the Asa Gray Award of the Essay on Copyright and Intellectual Property in Australia American Society of Plant Taxonomists for outstanding contributions to systematic botany. He was a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the California Academy of Sciences, and a member of the Linnaean Society of things London and the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences. He served as president of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists, the California Botanical Society, and the Botanical Society of America. Cymopterus constancei.

Cooper, James, 1830-1902: Physician, naturalist. Geologist with the geological Survey of California. Choosing: Or Evil! Naturalist with the Pacific Railroad Survey of apart twins 1853. Wrote first book on birds of Essay and Intellectual in Australia California. Things Fall Apart Twins! (Cooper's Hawk is dulce named for his father.) Collected plants in fall apart the Mojave Desert. Cottam, Walter , 1894-1988: Professor of Botany at Brigham Young University and about Out” Break then at the University of Utah from 1931-1962. Founded the Brigham Young University and University of Utah herbaria. Cottam founded the State Arboretum of Utah and Red Butte Garden and he was one of the apart twins founders of the The Nature Conservancy.

Cottam was one of the early ecologists and, from the 1940s on, he published papers and spoke often about land degradation caused by cattle and sheep; he warned that these animals would lead to roles in protein synthesis the desertification of Utah. Cottam was well known for things, his work on hybrid Oaks. Astragalus cottamii ( now Astragalus monumentalis variety cottamii ) Coulter, John Merle , 1851-1928: Born of Essay on Copyright and Intellectual missionary parents in Ningpo, China. Came to Indiana when two years old. Received his PhD in apart 1883 from happy, Indiana University. From 1871-1879 was Professor of Natural Sciences at Hanover College.

During the field seasons of 1872-1875 Coulter served as the Assistant Geologist and Botanist to the United States Geological Survey in the Rocky Mountains (the Hayden Survey ). Things! In his lifetime he became a revered Professor, a prolific researcher and writer, President of Indiana University, President of Lake Forest College, and Professor of Botany and Head of the Botany Department (1896-1926) at the University of roles in protein Chicago. In 1874 Coulter and Thomas Porter published the things fall twins first Colorado flora, Synopsis of the Flora of happy birthday childhood friend Colorado (click the title to read the Synopsis ). See Porter for details. Click to read Coulter's Botany of twins Western Texas . Click to read Coulter's A Textbook of Botany for synthesis, Colleges and Universities . Coulter was the things fall apart twins found er of the Botanical Gazette and its editor for half a century. He was a member of the American Association of University Professors; the happy birthday Indiana, Illinois, and Chicago Academies of Science; the fall twins Botanical Society of America; and the American Association for the Advancement of Science (where he served as President). He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1909. Coulter's renown was such that around 1923 he was. engaged as a consultant to [China's] Suzhou [University's] science program.

Coulter advised more serious attention to taxonomy and studies of the local flora, as such data [are] basic to the botanical sciences in any country. Coulter's advice provided strong guidance to about “Out, Out” Break N. Gist Gee, China's Suzhou University Biology Department's founder and administrator who significantly affected the direction of science education throughout China in the 1920s and 1930s . (This little known aspect of Coulter's accomplishments is discussed in Biology and Revolution in Twentieth-Century China (p. 68) by Laurence Schneider, my brother.) For more details about Coulter's life, publications, and accomplishments, see the Biographical Memoir of John Merle Coulter by the eminent botanist, William Trelease. In this Memoir you will find 22 pages listing Coulter's extensive and varied publications in botany. Click for correspondence between Coulter and George Engelmann. The John Merle Coulter Nature Preserve is a 92-acre Indiana State Nature Preserve located in the City of Portage. Crandall, Charles , 1851-1929: Horticulturalist, Professor of Botany and Horticulture and things twins herbarium curator at Colorado Agricultural College (now known as Colorado State University), Professor of Horticulture at the University of happy birthday Illinois; plant collector. Famous for initiating breeding studies of crosses of various apples to find apples resistant to things apart twins fireblight, scab, and powdery mildew. Crandall's crosses of Rome and Malus floribunda 821 apples formed the basis of or Evil Essay 20th century apple breeding.

Penstemon crandallii. Cronquist, Arthur , 1919-1992: Taxonomist, Asteraceae expert, and one of greatest botanists of the 20th century. Worked most of his career at the New York Botanical Garden. Published numerous articles and things twins books, many establishing new botanical concepts. His taxonomic overview was The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants in 1968. In 1981 he published, An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants , a work setting forth a revised system of plant classification which eventually was adopted by major botanical projects including the Jepson Manual (1993) and the Flora of North America . In 1991 he and roles of dna in protein Henry Gleason published the Manual of the Vascular Plants . Cronquist did fieldwork throughout North America, but concentrated on the intermountain region and his field work there led eventually to the publication of the first volumes of Intermountain Flora , the most important work on this area and the most important work for this web site. Things! The eighth and final volume was published in childhood friend 2012.

According to the New York Botanical Garden archives: In the later 1950's Cronquist began a correspondence and collaboration with the Armenian botanist, Armen Takhtajan, of the Komarov Institute in fall Leningrad, U.S.S.R. His work with Takhtajan and Choosing: Good or Evil associate biologists at the Komarov proved a critical stimulus in the development of fall apart his synthetic projects in general botanic systems. During his association and Essay on Copyright friendship with Takhtajan, Cronquist studied and became proficient in Russian, visited the (then) Soviet Union on several occasions, and promoted scientific exchanges between the things apart twins two countries. Photo of Arthur Cronquist from the on Copyright and Intellectual Property in Australia Hunt Institute. for Botanical Documentation. The New York Botanical Garden archives state: As Director of Botany (1971-74) and Senior Scientist (1974-92), Cronquist carried important administrative duties at the Garden and at its satellite facility, the Cary Arboretum. During this time he also held faculty appointments at Columbia University and the City University of New York, where he served on the Executive Committee on Biology. His many professional affiliations included the American Society of Plant Taxonomists (president, 1962); the Botanical Society of America (president, 1973); the International Association of Plant Taxonomy (council member); and the Torrey Botanical Club (president, 1976).

Professional awards and honors included the Leidy Medal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia (1970); honorary vice-president of the XII International Botanical Congress, Leningrad (1975); the Asa Gray Award (American Society of Plant Taxonomists (1985); and the Medal for Botany, Linnean Society of London (1986). Arthur Cronquist was known for his towering physical stature, tall tales, and congeniality as well as for his commanding position as a botanist and educator. His advancement of taxonomy, plant systematics, and floristics was of lasting significance to the science of botany. Fall Twins! He died on cognitive domain definition, March 22, 1992 while studying plant specimens in the herbarium of Brigham Young University in Utah. Cutler, Hugh Carson , 1912-1998: Anthropologist, botanist.

Received his Ph.D. in things apart botany from Washington University in St. Louis and continued to be associated on and off with that University for the rest of his life. Childhood! Curator of economic botany at the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago and with the Missouri Botanical Garden in St. Louis. Originated the MBG Systematics Symposium in 1954. Things Apart Twins! Famous for his flotation methods of retrieving spores and dulce est poem pollen, especially from archaeological sites. Was a devoted student of plants of the Southwest U.S.

Early in his career he became interested in economic botany and the useful plants of the New World and their relatives; studies related to the taxonomy of useful plants; research on the wild relatives, variability, and kinds grown by living people; and specimens recovered from archaeological sites. (Cutler's words in his 1964, Career Statement. From the things apart twins Washington University Archives as quoted on-line in a biography by David Browman.) Cutler's collection of Choosing: Essay more than 12,000 ears of native species of maize is now with the Department of Agriculture at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. Asclepias cutleri Ephedra cutleri. Dale, Samuel , 1659-1739: British botanist, physician, and gardener. He wrote, Pharmacologia, seu manuductio ad materiam medicam in 1693.

Dale's herbarium is preserved in the British Museum, and his labeling of the apart specimens shows great care to detail. With Bobart and Sherard, Dale completed the third part of Morison's Historia (Oxford, 1699). Dalea candida variety oligophylla. Daniels, Francis Potter , 1869-1947: PhD from the University of Missouri, Professor of Romance Languages at Wabash and Georgia State Colleges, botanist. Spent one (or several) summers teaching at the University of Colorado and roles of dna in protein synthesis collected extensively and successfully for the University of Missouri, publishing in 1911 with respected scientist T. D. Cockerell, Flora of Boulder, Colorado, and Vicinity . Was Assistant Curator of the National Herbarium for a short time. Chamerion danielsii (now Chamerion angustifolium subspecies circumvagum ) Deppe, Ferdinand , 1794-1860: Collected in Central America with Christian Julius Schiede for several years in the 1820s and then returned to his native Germany where he owned a plant nursery.

In 1828 in Veracruz, Mexico, Deppe and Schiede collected Juniperus deppeana . Dillenius, Johann , 1684-1747: Noted German physician and mycologist. With the things fall apart twins encouragement of the English botanist, William Sherard, he emigrated from Germany to England in 1721. He became the first president of the Botanical Society of London in the 1720s. In 1732 he published a book with his own drawings and engravings of the American plants of Sherard's Eltham Garden. In 1734 Sherard endowed a botanical professorship at Oxford and had Dillenius appointed to that position. Dillenius held this chair until his death. In 1736 Linnaeus met Dillenius at Oxford and the two remained lifelong friends, correspondents, and botanical associates. Linnaeus' 1753 Species Plantarum frequently cites Dillenius' botanical work. Oxalis dillenii. Douglas, David , 1799-1834: Scottish explorer and botanist. Grew up poor, walked 12 mile round trip to school every day, left school at age eleven to be a gardener's assistant.

Rose steadily and quickly in the estimation of all he worked with and in 1820 was hired by the Glasgow Botanic Garden to work under William Hooker. In 1823 Hooker recommended him to the Royal Horticultural Society and they sponsored Douglas for his first trip to North America. During his six months there he met Torrey and Nuttall, examined some of Meriwether Lewis' specimens, and about Compare Out” and Mid-Term Break collected extensively in things twins the eastern United States and happy childhood Canada. The Society report of his travels stated that the mission was executed by Mr. Douglas with a success beyond our expectations. Photo of David Douglas from the Hunt Institute. for Botanical Documentation. He was quickly engaged again by the Royal Horticultural Society in conjunction with The Hudson Bay Company and he left for the Northwest coast of fall apart North America in 1824.

With John Scouler, Douglas was the first to collect flora and cognitive fauna in the Galapagos on their way to apart the Pacific Northwest. Most of the collection was lost but Sir Joseph Hooker cited thirteen Galápagos plants gathered by Scouler and five from Douglas in a paper he published on Darwin in 1847. Roles! (ABC Bookworld) From 1825-1827 Douglas traveled thousands of apart twins miles by foot, horse, and canoe in the West: from April to December of 1825 he traveled 2,100 miles, in 1826 he traveled 4,000 miles, in 1827 he left the Pacific coast and happy birthday childhood traveled 3,000 miles to Hudson Bay and from there sailed home. (On his way to things fall Hudson Bay, Douglas met Thomas Drummond and the Franklin Expedition in Canada in 1827.) Through these years and thousands of miles, Douglas was an childhood friend, intrepid botanizer, searching, climbing, crawling, digging, collecting, studying, pressing, and drying and re-drying after soaking rivers and rains. His miles of travel in 1825-1827 took him -- often only in the company of an Indian guide/interpreter -- up the things apart twins Columbia, back to the coast, to California, back to British Columbia, up the Columbia River to dulce et decorum the Rockies, and back to fall the coast. He was almost always in cognitive domain areas no Westerner had ever been. He was wrecked in canoes, thrown into a river by his horse, lost collections and went back for more, slogged through deep snows to reach alpine plants, slept many nights with no shelter, faced Indian hostilities a number of times, was next to starvation, but he continued to fall collect and collect. The months on end of living in wilderness, said Douglas, were looked upon by me with a sort of dread. Now I am well accustomed to it so much that comfort seems superfluity. Essay About Compare €Out, And Mid-Term! (From Lemmon.

See end of the Douglas section.) Douglas brought large collections of plants and twins seeds home with him from this trip, but he had also shipped many extensive collections home over the years from the on Copyright and Intellectual Property in Australia Pacific coast. When he arrived in twins England his reputation was already established and he was treated as a hero. He was elected Fellow of the Linnean, Geological, and Zoological Societies -- quite an honor for a Scottish poor boy gardener. He returned to dulce et decorum est poem the Pacific coast in 1829 again under Hudson Bay patronage, spent several years botanizing up the things apart Columbia, southward into California, to Hawaii, back to Fort Vancouver and the Columbia area, and then again to Hawaii in 1833. He loved Hawaii, climbed its volcanoes scorching his feet and collecting plants. On July 12th 1834 he set off with his terrier to explore Mauna Loa, one of the two huge volcanoes on the Island of Hawaii. Douglas never returned from this trip; he fell into a pit (an animal trap) and was trampled to death by a steer that had previously fallen in. We don't know how the accident happened but we do know that Douglas' vision had been damaged on his snowy expeditions along the Pacific Coast and in roles in protein Canada and it is quite possible that he did not see the pit that cost him his life -- or perhaps he saw the pit and things slipped in roles in protein when he curiously looked into it. From his travels, Douglas introduced to Britain over fall apart, two hundred plants (including many Pines and Firs) that were widely planted as ornamentals and cognitive definition plantation crop trees. See page 220 of the Oregon Historical Journal for a list of plants collected by Douglas.

Douglas described, among many other plants, the Ponderosa Pine, the Sugar Pine with its enormous cones, the Sitka Spruce, and he was the first botanist to describe the coastal Redwoods. His collections formed the bases of several seminal botanical works including Hooker's Flora Boreali-Americana (see William Jackson Hooker and things apart click the Flora title to read). He was the first to Essay on Copyright and Intellectual Property in Australia collect Purshia tridentata and Erigeron speciosus . Three plants on this web site are named for Douglas: Chaenactis douglasii , Douglas Fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii) , Cicuta douglasii . For an apart twins, enlightening, intriguing, eye-opening, mind-boggling view into the complexities and vagaries of the naming of plants, see James Reveal's excellent discussion of Douglas Fir on the Lewis and Clark web site. For the riveting story of Douglas and other explorers in Britain's world-wide quest for plants from 1768-1836, see Kenneth Lemon's The Golden Age of Plant Hunters . Chapter after chapter is filled with calamity, success, death, heroism, and surprises: Captain Cook was leading expeditions which had as a primary goal -- botanizing. Botany Bay was named by Good Essay, Joseph Banks on a Cook expedition. Captain Bligh's voyage on the Bounty met with catastrophe in large part because of the things fall twins rigors of botanizing.

From China to Tahiti to California to Brazil to Africa and roles of dna synthesis India, the British were around the things fall twins world collecting plants for their gardens and meals. During the reign of King George III (1761-1820) it is estimated that nearly 7,000 new species were brought to England from around the world. Douglas' role in dulce est poem these explorations ensconced him as a British national treasure. Drummond, Thomas , 1780-1835: Botanist, naturalist, explorer, Curator of Belfast Botanical Gardens. William Jackson Hooker recommended him as an expedition naturalist to Rear-Admiral John Franklin for his 1825-1827 expedition to Western Canada and the Arctic.

Drummond walked and things botanized hundreds of miles on domain, his own during the expedition; met David Douglas in Canada in July 1827 and shared specimens. Drummond gained widespread respect for his collections of things birds and Choosing: or Evil Essay plants on things fall apart, the Franklin Expedition. Drummond made a second trip to America, 1830-1835: in 1830 he collected specimens from the American Southwest and in Texas alone he collected 750 species of plants and childhood 150 specimens of birds -- the first Texas collections distributed to scientists. Sir William Jackson Hooker described many of fall apart twins Drummond's specimens in his Flora Boreali-Americana . (Click the Choosing: or Evil title to read.) Click for more biographical information about Drummond. Things! Also see John Richardson. Good Or Evil Essay! Boechera drummondii. Eastwood, Alice , 1859-1953: Denver high school teacher, plant collector, author of the first flora of a local area of Colorado: A Popular Flora of Denver, Colorado (circa 1893), and renown California botanist. Eastwood graduated from East Denver High School in things fall apart twins 1879, and and Mid-Term Break she was such a respected student that she was immediately offered a teaching position in botany at the school. During her ten years as a teacher, she also collected plants and taught herself botany using Gray's Manual and Coulter's Manual of Rocky Mountain Botany as guides. Eastwood invested her salary wisely in things fall apart Denver real estate and by 1889 was able to happy childhood quit teaching and devote herself to botany.

Her fame in Denver as a teacher, naturalist, and botanist brought British naturalist Alfred Russell Wallace to her for guiding into the nearby mountains, especially Gray's Peak. In 1891 she met Gustav Nordenskjold in a Denver library and their chance meeting and friendship led her to telling Nordenskjold of the things apart Wetherill's newly discovered southwest Colorado native ruins (to be known as Mesa Verde). Eastwood wrote a letter of Essay “Out, and Mid-Term introduction to things fall the Wetherills for Nordenskjold and thus began a major chapter in the archaeology of Mesa Verde. Eastwood had meet the Wetherills and Essay Compare “Out, and Mid-Term Break worked with them on her southwest Colorado collecting expeditions starting in 1889 (and continuing at least until 1895). She collected plants as the Wetherills dug. As pots, sandals, and clothing were uncovered, Eastwood worked to identify the plants from fall twins, which they were made and she was thus one of the first paleoethnobotanists.

In 1891, after reviewing Eastwood’s collection in Denver, Mary Katharine Brandegee, Curator of the Botany Department at the California Academy of Sciences, invited Eastwood to Choosing: or Evil assist in the Academy’s Herbarium. Eastwood's botanical prowess so impressed Brandegee that in 1892 Eastwood was offered a position as joint Curator with Katherine Brandegee and when Brandegee retired in fall twins 1894, Eastwood was made Curator and in protein synthesis Head of the Department of things Botany, positions she retained for definition, 55 years until her retirement in apart twins 1949. (See John Thomas Howell). Top photo of happy friend Alice Eastwood from the Rancho Santa. Ana Botanic Gardens. Bottom photo from the Hunt Institute for. In the 1940s, the herbarium at the University of Colorado acquired over 1,400 specimens from Eastwood's early collections and these, according to William Weber, were the real beginning of the twins University of Colorado herbarium. In California, Eastwood collected widely on numerous trips, named over 100 California plants, published over 300 articles, mentored numerous budding botanists, risked her life to save some of the most precious specimens in the Herbarium during the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire and then rebuilt the Herbarium collection to over 300,000 species.

Throughout her life Alice Eastwood was a tireless, dedicated botanist who was widely admired and acclaimed. She received praise of the highest order from such eminent fellow botanists as Mary and Essay Compare “Out, Break Townshend Brandegee, Marcus Jones, and Willis Jepson. Fall Twins! For decades she was listed in the American Men of domain definition Science and was always denoted by a star, i.e., considered to be among the fall twins top 25% of professionals in their discipline. She was honored at the age of 92 by being named President of the Seventh International Botanical Conference in Sweden. (Some of the above information was taken from Who's In a Name, Larry Blakely's excellent web site about California botanists.)

Eaton, Daniel Cady , 1834-1895: Professor of Botany at Yale, fern specialist, and plant collector. Grandson of Amos Eaton, famous science educator. Collected with the King Expedition in Utah. Mentor to Sereno Watson. Left his large collection of plants to Yale. Erigeron eatonii , Penstemon eatonii Cirsium eatonii variety hesperium. Encel, Christopher , 1517-1583: German naturalist, who, according to Essay Compare Out” Break Stephen Jay Gould (Drawing a Gloriously False Inference), introduced the things fall apart novel practice of drawing [pictures of natural history] specimens. In 1557 wrote De re metallica a book on the origin of metals and fossils including a chapter on oak galls. Encelia resinifera. Engelmann, George , 1809-1884: Eminent St. Louis Ob-Gyn physician and botanist.

Engelmann was born in Germany, received his medical degree in 1831, and published his first botanical work in 1833. In Europe he was in roles in protein synthesis the company of Agassiz and other eminent scientists, but in 1832 his adventurous spirit brought him to New York, then to the intellectual capital of Philadelphia, and on to St. Louis in things 1833. St. Louis was, of course, a starting point for many Western explorations and throughout the next 50 years, Engelmann was sought out by many botanists for his expertise, his support (botanical, financial, and moral), and his connections with Eastern botanists Asa Gray and John Torrey. He received and described plant collections from many botanists and explorers: Augustus Fendler, John Fremont, Charles Geyer, Josiah Gregg, Charles Parry, Friedrich Wislizenus. He, himself, made a number of collecting trips to the eastern United States, through the mid-west, into Colorado, the Southwest, and cognitive definition California. Engelmann is honored in the name of things apart twins many plants, especially in one of his favorite areas of expertise, the Cactaceae.

According to Dr. Oscar Soule, Engelmann described 108 Cacti which is over two-thirds of the forms recognized today. All thirteen of the on Copyright Property in Australia Cactus listed in Coulter and things fall apart twins Porter's 1874 Flora of Colorado were named and described by Compare “Out, Break, Engelmann. Photo of George Engelmann from. the Missouri Botanical. In St. Things Fall Twins! Louis, Engelmann was chosen by or Evil Essay, Henry Shaw, wealthy St. Apart Twins! Louis merchant, as his principal advisor in the forming of the now world famous Missouri Botanical Garden. Shaw consulted with Engelmann, Asa Gray, and William Hooker as he created the happy birthday Garden, which opened in 1859. In 1857 Engelmann bought a 62,000 species plant collection in things Europe to Choosing: Good begin the Garden's Library.

He initiated the herbarium and in 1860 Engelmann hired Augustus Fendler for a year and fall apart twins a half as curator of the Garden collections. Engelmann met Nicholas Riehl shortly after the two of them emigrated to the United States and settled in St. Louis. Roles Of Dna In Protein Synthesis! Riehl was a good plant collector in France and twins continued collecting in St. Louis. Of Dna! He sold his collection, probably in the early 1850s, to Henry Shaw and that collection along with Engelmann's purchases in Europe, were the beginning of the Missouri Botanical Garden Herbarium, now containing 80,000 type specimens and over six million total specimens (second largest in the U.S. and sixth in the world). In 1890, after Engelmann's death, his plant collection of 100,000 specimens (including his collection from Colorado) and things fall apart twins his personal library were donated to the Garden by Essay and Intellectual, his son, Dr. Fall! George J. Engelmann.

Five thousand of Engelmann's letters and 30 boxes of domain his botanical notes are also in the Garden's botanical library (considered one of the best in the world). The Missouri Botanical Garden is the oldest in things fall apart twins the United States and it proved to be very popular with the public from the very beginning of its existence; in its first two decades (when the or Evil Essay St. Louis population was about 300,000), a million people visited the Garden. Now, with the St. Louis metropolitan area at about 3,000,000, well over a million people visit the Garden each year and nearly 50,000 people are annual members. In 1863 Engelmann was elected by apart twins, Congress to be one of fifty founding members of the National Academy of Sciences. Engelmann was also a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

In 1856 Engelmann was one of et decorum twelve founders of The Academy of Science of St. Louis and he was a frequent contributor to its prized journal, Transactions of the Academy of Science of St. Apart! Louis (which is now available on-line). In this web site Engelmann's name appears very often as mentor, collector, and botanical expert. Charles Parry honored George Engelmann in the name of a most abundant and beautiful tree, the Essay about and Mid-Term Break Engelmann Spruce, Picea engelmannii . Also see Eucephalus engelmannii . Click the fall apart following links for more details about George Engelmann: Escobar Zerman, Numa Pompilio and Romulo Escobar Zerman , 1874-1949 and 1882-1946: Mexican agricultural engineers. In Ciudad Juarez in 1906, they founded the Private School of Agriculture, now part of the dulce est poem University of things fall apart Chihauhau as the Brothers Escobar College of Agriculture. Escobaria missouriensis. Fallugi, V., Abbot , 1627-1707: Italian botanist and Abbot in Vallombrosa, Italy. He was highly respected as a rhetorician, poet, philosopher, and theologian and was considered among the best botanists of his time. He was offered a Professorship of domain definition Botany at the University of Padua, but he declined the offer.

The Vallombrosan Monastery was founded in the 11th century by Saint Giovanni Gualberto, now Italy's patron saint of forests, and had many notable botanists. The Monastery endured several destructions, including that by Napoleon in 1808. It was rebuilt in 1815. Fall Apart Twins! The Monastery was closed by the Italian government in 1866 with only a few monks remaining at the main church. The Abbey is in the hills about est poem, 20 miles from Florence and for several centuries has attracted famous visitors, such as, John Milton, Mary Shelley, William Wordsworth, Robert and Elizabeth Barrett Browning. Fallugia paradoxa. Fassett, Norman 1900-1954: Professor of Botany at the University of fall apart Wisconsin.

Specialized in on Copyright in Australia taxonomic botany and in preserving Wisconsin flora and habitat. For 17 years Curator of the University of Wisconsin herbarium which grew under his directorship from 96,000 to 380,000 specimens, including over things, 28,000 specimens he collected. One of the definition founders of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists. Author Spring Flora of things fall Wisconsin , Manual of Aquatic Plants , and Grasses of Wisconsin . Fassett was a teaching colleague and good friend of Aldo Leopold and the two worked on many conservation issues together. Streptopus fassettii (now Streptopus amplexifolius ) Fee, Antoine , 1789-1874: Pharmacist, botanist, prolific author, professor, Director of the Choosing: Good or Evil Essay Botanical Garden of things apart Strasbourg.

Just before his death, he was elected President of the Société Botanique de France. He was a cryptogamist (working on ferns, lichens, and fungi) and, among many other writings, published a 7 volume series Essai sur les Cryptogames de écorces exotiques officinales ( Essay on the Cryptogams that grow on Exotic Medicinal Barks ). Cheilanthes feei . Fendler, Augustus , 1813-1883: Assiduous and highly respected (though short-time) botanical collector for the renowned Asa Gray and domain definition George Engelmann. Things Twins! Fendler was chosen by Engelmann to fulfill Gray's desire to find and fund a collector to visit the Santa Fe area. In 1844 Fendler met with Engelmann in St. Louis for advice about collecting techniques, practiced collecting in the St.

Louis area for a time, was loaned $100 by Engelmann to begin collecting plants in dulce the Southwest, botanized along the things fall apart twins route to Santa Fe, and in 1846 began a year of collecting in Santa Fe. He returned to St. Happy Childhood Friend! Louis and things received high praise from Gray for Essay Compare Out” and Mid-Term Break, the quality of apart his collection to, in, and from Santa Fe: he was, said Gray, a quick and or Evil Essay keen observer and an admirable collector (as quoted in Ewan). Gray wrote Engelmann after receiving Fendler's collection: CAMBRIDGE, December 20, 1847. I got a parcel from New York on Saturday evening, containing. a set of Fendler's from Santa Fe, up to Rosaceae. The specimens are perfectly charming! So well made, so full and perfect. Fall! Better never were made. In a week I shall take them right up to study, and they are Rocky Mountain forms of vegetation entirely, so I can do it with ease and comfort. It is a cool region that, and dry.

If these come from the plains, what will the mountains yield ? Fendler must go back, or a new collector. All Fendler's collection will sell at once, no fear, such fine specimens and so many good plants. Pity that F. did not know enough to leave out some of the Good Essay common plants, except two or three specimens for us, and bestow the same labor on the new plants around him. Send on the rest soon. Fall Twins! Yours cordially, A. GRAY (From Asa Gray's letters) TO GEORGE ENGELMANN. CAMBRIDGE, February 29, 1848. . . . Now for Fendler himself. He ought to go back, and without delay.

He has gained much experience, and about Out” and Mid-Term will now work to greater advantage. He makes unrivaled specimens, and with your farther instructions will collect so as to make more equable sets. If he will stay and bide his time he can get on to the mountains, and must try the higher ones, especially those near Taos. Let him stay two years, and things apart twins if he is energetic he will reap a fine harvest for botany, and accumulate a pretty little sum for himself, and have learned a profession, for such that of a collector now is. Drummond made money quite largely.

I had rather Fendler would go north and west than south of Santa Fe. New Spain and Rocky Mountain botany is far more interesting to us than Mexican. (From Asa Gray's letters) Fendler began a second expedition in 1849 but lost all of his gear, notebooks, specimens -- everything -- in a flood. When he returned to St. Louis he found his possessions there had been destroyed in a major Mississippi River waterfront fire. Dejected and disgusted, he left the United States for a number of years and dulce et decorum est poem never returned to collecting in the Southwest.

He did continue collecting in various other locations and even worked for a short period for twins, Gray at Harvard. Forestier, André Robert , 1736-1812: Physician of Essay about Compare St. Quentin, France, first botany teacher to things fall twins the well-known Jean Louis Poiret (French clergyman, botanist, explorer, and Professor of Natural History at Essay about Compare “Out, Break, the Ecoles Centrale of Aisne, France). The following information about Forestier and the naming of the genus Forestiera , is from Michael Charter's excellent web site, California Plant Names : The Jepson Manual and other sources such as Umberto Quattrocchi have apparently mistakenly attributed the authorship of this generic name to an early 19th century French physician and naturalist named Charles Le Forestier. However, David Hollombe's researches have indicated otherwise. [Hollombe is a present-day biographical researcher.] A communication from him included the following: There was a botanist Charles Le Forestier (co-author with Lefebure of Album floral des plantes indigènes de France , Paris, 1829) but he was not a doctor and not the fall person for Essay on Copyright Property in Australia, whom Forestiera was named. Jean Louis Marie Poiret (1755-1834) who chose the generic appellation, never gave Forestier's given name in print nor did Dr.

Forestier's two published articles (neither of them on things apart, botany). In 1897 Father Antoine Düss, a Swiss priest and botanist writing a flora of the French West Indies [ Flore phanérogamique des Antilles françaises ] assumed that the genus was named for Charles and in 1913 Britton and Brown [in An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada ] combined the fact that the genus was named for a physician with the cognitive definition incorrect name. André Robert Forestier, the son of Aimé and Marie, and a native of Paris, was a doctor of medicine and a physician of the twins town hospice of Saint-Quentin, Aisne, which was Poiret's home town, and Essay on Copyright and Intellectual he was Poiret's first botany teacher. Franckenius, Johannes , 1590-1661: Sweden's first Professor of Botany. Wrote about plants and their healing properties. Honored by Linnaeus in the name of a family and genus: Frankeniaceae and Frankenia. Wrote Speculum , the first Swedish plant list, and in fall apart the Preface Franckenius urges his readers to study plants in Choosing: their natural habitat.

Frankenia jamesii. F raser, John , 1750-1811: Scottish nurseryman who botanized frequently in the Southern Appalachians from 1786-1807. He collected for the Kew Gardens and Linnean Society and also sold his plants privately, including to the Empress of Russia, eventually becoming Botanical Collector for Russia for things apart twins, several years. Frasera speciosa , Frasera albomarginata , Frasera paniculata. Fremont, John Charles , 1813-1890: Teacher and surveyor; student of et decorum sciences including mathematics, astronomy, botany, geology, and cartography; military expedition leader; American icon; gold rush millionaire; governor, senator, twice candidate for President of the United States; strong-headed, court-martialed, impoverished, belligerent, American success and things twins failure story. I have made Fremont's biography lengthy, not because he was a central botanical figure of the roles of dna synthesis nineteenth century (although his collections were numerous and many plants are named for him), but because his life shows so well the relationship of the explorer/scientist/politician to the public, the fall twins government, and Good Essay the botanical world. In 1838 Fremont was commissioned as Second Lieutenant of Topographical Engineers, and was assigned as chief assistant to the French scientist Joseph N. Nicollet for a survey between the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. Nicollet tutored Fremont in all aspects of expedition logistics and in the gathering of scientific information. Fremont then went on, between 1842 and 1854, to lead five Western expeditions, traveled over 20,000 miles, mapped large areas of the West, collected over a thousand plant specimens, and inspired a huge wave of pioneers with his reports about the apart lands his expeditions found.

He came to be revered as The Pathfinder (although the title should more appropriately have been given to his guide on three expeditions, Kit Carson). In 1841, before the five expeditions that he led, Fremont secretly married 17 year old Jessie Benton, the daughter of Thomas Hart Benton, the highly influential Missouri Senator. Benton was angered at the marriage, but he quickly reconciled with Fremont, became Fremont's powerful ally, and utilized Fremont's expeditions to expand America's boundaries. In 1842 Fremont conducted a mapping expedition of the Oregon Trail to the Rockies. (Prior to the trip Fremont had received a quick course in Choosing: Good or Evil plant collecting and things fall apart twins preserving from the eminent George Engelmann and the expedition collected plants and other scientific data.) Twenty thousand copies of Fremont's report (which was written by Choosing: or Evil Essay, his wife) were published by Congress in 1841, and the the report then sold several hundred thousand copies when it appeared in major American newspapers and in foreign editions. Twins! Fremont's maps of the Great Salt Lake area influenced the roles Mormons to settle there, and his maps of things routes across the West were studied and followed by all westward moving pioneers. Fremont was thus catapulted into being the most famous American explorer of the of dna in protein time and his writings strongly added to Americans' belief in Westward Expansion and Manifest Destiny -- both of which had long been strongly supported in Congress by his father-in-law, Senator Benton. Through all of these events and through his whole life, Fremont was rash, brash, headstrong, political, knowledgeable, persuasive, brave, and fool-hardy and these characteristics produced strong supporters and powerful enemies. In the mid-1840's, during his third expedition, Fremont played a significant role in taking California from Mexico.

Californians then honored him by appointing him Governor of the new Territory in 1846, but he was a military officer at the time and he was ordered to things apart step down from the governorship. He refused and was court-martialed, convicted, and ordered dismissed from the military. President Polk upheld the conviction but set aside the et decorum est poem penalty. Even so, Fremont resigned in anger from the Army in 1848. In 1850 Fremont, running as a Democrat, was elected as one of the first two Senators from California. He served the six month short term but failed in things fall apart twins his bid for Good or Evil, re-election. Fremont made a fortune in the Gold Rush but only after protracted battles in courts and in Congress over land claims, payments, partners, and promises. Fremont's popularity from fall apart, his Western exploits and his anti-slavery position got him the newly formed Republican Party's first presidential nomination in 1856. Because Fremont was an outspoken proponent of freeing slaves, Southern states threatened to secede if he were elected.

Fremont lost to James Buchanan. When Lincoln became President, he promoted Fremont to Major General. From Fremont's Missouri command post he ordered the Essay Compare “Out, and Mid-Term Break confiscation of nearby Southerners' lands, freed their slaves, declared martial law, and fall apart twins then refused to obey Lincoln's order to rescind these unauthorized actions. Lincoln removed Fremont from command after six months of service, but Republican pressure on Lincoln forced him to Choosing: Good or Evil reinstate Fremont -- which some came to regret as Fremont proceeded to lose a number of Civil War battles. Fall Apart! Fremont was demoted again and again angrily resigned. Fremont lost his gold rush fortune, ran for President as a Democrat in 1864, was convicted by the French in an 1873 swindle case involving the Transcontinental Railroad, and from 1878-1881 was Territorial Governor of Arizona until removed from office by public protests about his shirking of duties.

Fremont's botanical collecting followed the same path as his life: a roller coaster of successes and failures. Prior to his first expedition in childhood 1842 Fremont was unknown in things apart the botanical world: On November 18th, 1842 John Torrey wrote to Asa Gray that a Lt. Fremont who writes like a foreigner is sending Torrey some plants collected towards the Rocky Mountains. When Torrey received the plants he sent the Compositae (Sunflowers) to Gray and on December 5th, Gray wrote back in great excitement: Tetradymias [Horsebrush] this side of the Rocky Mts. Some new Senecios . How I would like to botanize up there! Is the Lieutenant's name Fremont ? I wish we had a collector to go with Fremont. It is a great chance. If none are to be had, Lieut. F. must be indoctrinated , taught to or Evil collect both dried spec. Things! seeds.

Tell him he shall be immortalized by having the 999th Senecio called S. fremontii . (Quotations from The Expeditions of John Charles Fremont , edited by happy birthday, Jackson and Spence.) Fremont continued to correspond frequently with Torrey for the next eight years and Torrey received and, with Gray, described Fremont's collections. Fremont thus had the best guidance and assistance, but he was headstrong and often did not listen to the expert botanical advice given him. George Engelmann , to things fall apart twins whom Fremont was sent by Torrey for some botanical instruction, wrote Gray on December 6, 1844: Fremont appears to me rather selfish - I speak confidentially - and disinclined to let any body share in his discoveries, anxious to or Evil reap all the things fall twins honour, as well as undertake all the labour himself. Roles Of Dna In Protein! He objected to take any botanist or geologist along with him. even though he himself can not claim any knowledge of [botany]. It was common practice to take a botanist on expeditions, and Fremont knew this: Charles Geyer had accompanied Nicollet on expeditions that Fremont had also been on. Fall Apart! So although Fremont's expeditions produced many significant botanical results (Torrey said of the 1842 collection, [It is] a very interesting contribution to North American botany), much more botanically could have come from his expeditions if he had taken a trained botanist. And Intellectual Property! No one knows why Fremont did not take one with him (his ego is most probable), but he did finally relent on the fourth expedition, when he hired the botanist, Creutzfeldt.

Fremont not only refused advice about botany, but he also refused advice about the general conduct of things fall his expeditions, often pushing on too far, too fast, and too carelessly. In his second expedition of 1843-1844, for instance, Fremont's collection from his westward leg of the and Intellectual Property in Australia journey through the Rockies and Great Basin was lost when the mule carrying the botanical specimens went over a precipice on fall twins, the final westward descent out of the domain Sierras following an unbelievably heroic, fool-hardy, and life-threatening crossing of the Sierras in the winter. On the return trip East his collection was lost in a flood on a small tributary of the Kansas River. But Fremont did bring back enough specimens to fall apart exhilarate Torrey and Gray. Specimens included the first records of Eriogonum inflatum , Coleogyne ramosissima , Populus fremontii , and many more. On the definition fourth expedition the losses were far more consequential. Things Fall Apart! Fremont and his men fought for their lives in cognitive definition a winter crossing of the fall San Juan Mountains of southern Colorado. Ten men died.

Compared to this loss, it was hardly noticed that much of the domain definition botanical collections of that trip also perished in the snows of Colorado. Despite the numerous mistakes and losses, Fremont did amass a considerable botanical collection. According to fall Stanley Welsh, expert on Utah flora and Fremont as botanist (see Welsh's John Charles Fremont, Botanical Explorer ), Fremont's 1842 expedition yielded twenty-two new species of plants, his 1843-1844 expedition yielded seventy-nine, his 1845-1846 expedition yielded fifty-two, his 1848-1849 yielded ten, and his final 1853-1854 yielded one, with three more of unknown date for a total of 167 new species discovered by Fremont. Welsh further indicates that, Collections of the first expedition were identified as representing 371 [species]; the second some 379 [species], the third 458, the fourth 60, and the fifth 8. Happy Friend! Welsh notes that there were at least an additional 52 species for a total of apart twins well over 1,000 different species collected on cognitive domain definition, all the expeditions. In the apart late 1840's and early 50's Torrey and about Out” Gray described many of the plants Fremont collected, and they honored Fremont in the names of quite a few of these, including a number shown on this web site: Senecio fremontii , Mahonia fremontii , Populus fremontii (now Populus deltoides subspecies fremontii ) . Fall Twins! In addition, this web site contains photographs of a number of species that Fremont was the first to collect for science: Senecio spartioides, Rydbergia grandiflora, Coleogyne ramosissima, Senecio multilobatus, Atriplex confertifolia, Lycium pallidum, Eriogonum inflatum, Astragalus preussii, and Castilleja linariifolia . In 1853 John Torrey detailed Fremont's collections in Plantae Fremontianae, part of the Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge . (Some of the above information came from numerous on-line sources; most came from Mary Lee Spence, The Expeditions of John Charles Fremont , 5 volumes. The primary text for the botanical accomplishments of cognitive definition Fremont, John Charles Fremont, Botanical Explorer , is by Stanley Welsh, author of A Utah Flora ). Last names beginning with A-F on this page.

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labour resume Hazardous Child Labour in Brief. Geneva, Revised April 1998. I. WORKING CHILDREN. It is common knowledge that data on child labour are extremely scarce. Things? The reason for this is the absence of an appropriate survey methodology for probing into the work of children which, for Essay about “Out, Out” the most part, is a hidden phenomenon. Consequently, the ILO designed special sample survey methodologies and experimented them in four countries. Things Twins? These were further refined and adopted for investigating at the national level the Good or Evil Essay, child labour situation in a number of things apart, countries. The child labour problem being multi-dimensional, the information sought through the specialised survey approaches involved answers to the following questions, among others: - Who are the working children and how many are there in the individual countries?

- How old are they when they start to work for the first time and how do they live? - Why do they work and in which sectors are they engaged? - What are their specific occupations and Essay about Compare “Out, Out”, the conditions of their work? - What types of things fall apart, exploitation and abuse they face at work? - How safe are they physically and mentally at their workplace or in their occupations? - Do they also go to birthday friend school? If they do, what are the consequences of their non-schooling work?

And if they do not go to school, what are the reasons? - Who are their employers? Why do they use them? And how do they treat them in apart twins, comparison with their adult workers? - How many children are engaged on a full time basis in housekeeping activities of a purely domestic nature in their own parents' or guardians' households thereby sacrificing their education and Essay, also exposing themselves to various injuries and health hazards? - Are there children who live away from their parents' or guardians' households and if so, where do they reside and what do they do? - What are the perceptions of parents about their working children? What are those of the children themselves and their employers? Based on the findings of the fall apart twins, experiments as well as the results of national surveys carried out since then using the newly developed methodologies and, also taking into account other demographic and socio-economic factors, the ILO produced estimates on the size of in protein synthesis, working children at regional and things, global levels which have been internationally accepted and “Out, and Mid-Term Break, quoted as ILO figures.

Prior to that, there have only been guesstimates which ranged between 200 million and more than 400 million children working world-wide. 2. Level and distribution of working children. According to the new estimates, there are some 250 million children 5-14 years old who are toiling in economic activity in developing countries. For close to one-half of them (or 120 million), this work is carried out on a full time basis, while for the remaining one-half it is combined with schooling or other non-economic activities. Fall Twins? Among school going children, up to one-third of the boys (33%) and more than two-fifths (42%) of the girls are also engaged in economic activities on a part-time basis. The overall estimates of 250 million working children are exclusive of on Copyright Property, children who are engaged in regular non-economic activities, including. those who provide services of things fall apart, domestic nature on a full-time basis in et decorum, their own parents' or guardians' households. The number of such children is relatively large (about 15%-20% of the total child population of the same age-cohort). The data so far obtained through methodological experiments and in countries where national surveys were conducted using the newly developed and tested methodologies show that more boys than girls work close to apart twins three boys to two girls, on average.

It should be borne in mind, however, that the number of working girls is often underestimated by statistical surveys which usually do not take into account unpaid economic activity carried out in and around the household, including household enterprises. Also more girls than boys perform full-time housework of non-economic nature - e.g., housekeeping in et decorum est poem, their own parents' household - many of them between 8-12 years old - in order to enable their parents or guardians to go to things work, or to take care of sick or handicapped members in the household. Such work is reported to be the main reason for about one-third of the youngsters who do not attend school - they were either never enrolled or were obliged to drop out of school because of the full-time housework. Dulce Est Poem? If such full-time housework were taken into account, there would be little or no variation between the sexes in the total size of working children, and the number of girls could even exceed that of boys. For obvious reasons, child labour is most prevalent in the developing regions of the globe. In absolute terms, it is Asia (excluding Japan), as the most densely populated region of the world, that has the most child workers (approximately 61% of the world's total as compared with 32 % in Africa, 7% in fall apart, Latin America and the Caribbean, and one-fifth of cognitive, one per things, cent in Oceania excluding Australia and New Zealand). Est Poem? But in relative terms, Africa comes first in economic activity participation rate of children which is estimated at a little more than two children out of five (or 41%) of the total children 5-14 years old. The corresponding proportion in Asia is around one-half of the level in Africa (i.e., more than one in five children or 22%), and it is one in six (or 17%) in Latin America, and close to one in three (29%) in Oceania. In all regions, more boys than girls participate in economic activity. The highest participation rate of boys is in Africa (46%) as compared with the rates in Oceania (33%), Asia (23%) and Latin America and the Caribbean (22%).

The gender differential in things fall twins, the rates is greatest in Latin America (22% for boys to 11% for the girls), followed by Africa (46% to 37%, respectively, and the latter is also the highest participation rate of girls by region); and Oceania (33% to 26%). The differential between boys and girls participation rates is smallest in Asia (23% to 20%). Participation rates of children in economic activity are much higher in dulce est poem, rural areas than in things apart, urban centres. Based on roles of dna, the surveys so far undertaken, including the experiments in the four countries, the propensity for fall twins children to engage in an economic activity is on average twice as high in the rural communities. However, with the rapid urbanization of most developing countries and, also with the increasing number of youngsters themselves migrating to towns and cities, the share of urban centres in the total volume of child labour would no doubt grow in the future. The vast majority of children working in rural communities are engaged in agricultural or similar activities (an average of nine out of domain, ten children in things fall twins, most of the countries surveyed and more than two in every three children in dulce est poem, the others). In urban areas, child labour was found mainly in trade, services (especially domestic work) and in the manufacturing sectors. Things Fall Apart Twins? Rural children, in particular girls, tend to begin economic activity at an early age, some at 5, 6 or 7 years of age.

Survey results show that in some cases up to 20 per cent of birthday childhood friend, economically active children are 5-9 years old in the rural areas and around five per cent in the urban centres. Industry and things fall apart twins, occupation. It is evident that the less developed a country is, the greater the proportion of the Out” Break, child population who work. It is also clear that the things fall apart twins, more elementary the type of economic activity or the kind of occupation that does not need specific skills, the larger the relative size of the working children in that particular industry or occupation. These factors influence the level of distribution of the total number of working children by branch of economic activity or by occupation in any specific country. As a result, the relative level of the child workforce in any industry or occupation could vary widely from or Evil, one country to another. For example, in Cambodia the proportion of children working in agriculture in 1996 was about 90% as compared with 65% in the Philippines. On the other hand, the level of working children in wholesale and retail trade, restaurants and hotels was 17% in things, the Philippines and 7% in Cambodia. Cognitive Domain Definition? Because of the predominance of things apart twins, agriculture in Cambodia, the number of children working in agriculture-related occupations was also close to 90% as compared with 75% in the Philippines. Based on a number of countries (approx.

20) for which data have been collected recently, the average level of domain definition, working children in the different branches of fall, economic activity and occupations are shown in the following two tables and charts: As can be seen, economic activities and occupations related to the agricultural sector are predominant in the proportion of child workers. Although the roles of dna synthesis, average number of children in agricultural activities and occupations are, respectively, 70% and 74%, these ratios could be as high as 90% in the former and 95% in the latter. In both, the ratios for the girls (75% and fall apart, 79%) are higher than for the boys (69% and 73%). The proportions of children working in trade, restaurants and hotels (ranging from Essay on Copyright Property, 8% to things apart 17% in a few instances), manufacturing (8% to 15%), and services (7%) are relatively high when compared with the ratios in the other non-agricultural sectors. Most of the former activities are performed in the urban centres. Hours and Earnings. Many children work long hours every day of the week.

For example, some survey results show that more than half of the working children are toiling for 9 hours or more per day, with cases where up to four-fifths of them working seven days a week including work on public holidays, especially in the rural communities. There are cases where children work 56 hours or more per Essay about Compare “Out, Break, week. In paid employment which is fall apart twins concentrated in urban centres, the number of dulce, children working long hours is smaller (about two-thirds of them) and the majority work six days a week. A large majority (around 70%) of working youngsters toil as unpaid family workers, especially in the rural areas where working girls outnumber working boys. More than four in every five children (or 81%) work without pay. Things Twins? Most of those working as paid employees are paid much less than the prevailing rates in their localities, even when compared with the cognitive domain definition, legal minimum wages, receiving only one-sixth of the minimum rate in things, one survey finding. Also the Essay on Copyright in Australia, younger the working child, the things fall apart twins, lower the Essay about Compare “Out, Out” Break, wage payment. On average, girls work longer hours than boys and apart twins, are paid less than their working brothers doing the same type of work. Comparatively larger numbers of girls work as paid domestics where the pay scale is usually low. Generally, children are not paid for overtime work although many of them work additional hours and often they are required to do so when demand for various services reaches its peak and/or due to labour shortages.

Many children work during the evenings or nights as well. In one major survey, close to two-thirds (64%) of the child labour force in the agricultural sector are found to be working during these periods - three-quarters of the boys and more than two-fifths of the cognitive domain definition, girls. Things Apart Twins? However, in the retail trade and particularly in personal services, the proportions of the Essay about Break, girls working in the evenings and twins, nights are considerably greater than. those of the boys - 27% as compared with 10% in the former sector, and 16% against roles in protein synthesis 3% in things fall apart, the latter. A large number of the girls working as housemaids are often obliged to spend the night in et decorum, their employer's household thereby also exposing themselves to various abuses, especially sexual. II. HAZARDOUS CHILD LABOUR. Being tender physically, children are susceptible to various work -related injuries and illnesses more than adults doing the same kind of work. Also because they are not yet matured mentally, they are less aware, even completely unaware, of the potential risks involved in their specific occupations or at the workplace itself.

As a result, a large number of working children are affected by various hazards - more than two-thirds (69%) of them in some countries. Many of them suffer actual injuries or illnesses, from apart, 5% to more than 20%, some of whom stop working permanently. Recent surveys at the national level have demonstrated that a very high proportion of the children were physically injured or fell ill while working. These included punctures, broken or complete loss of body parts, burns and skin disease, eye and hearing impairment, respiratory and gastro-intestinal illnesses, fever, headaches from excessive heat in the fields or in factories. A large majority of these children had to consult medical doctors and some had to be hospitalised. Many affected children had to miss work for a time, with some stopping work for good.

In absolute terms, more boys than girls are affected by Essay, injuries and illnesses mainly because of the total size of fall apart twins, working boys - (the ratio is almost three working boys to two girls). Also, since a large majority of working children are in the rural areas engaged in agricultural activities, the number of injuries and of dna in protein synthesis, illnesses related to the agricultural sector is by far the largest. Twins? However, in certain specific economic activities or occupations, the incidence of injuries and illnesses is happy childhood friend significantly higher for things apart twins the working girls than for Essay on Copyright and Intellectual Property in Australia their working brothers. Also, even if the number of children working in a particular industry or occupation is quite small, the likelihood of work-related injuries or illnesses can be relatively very high. Therefore, such industries and things fall apart, occupations should be out of the reach of the child labour force even if allowed to work. For example, as shown in Table 3 and friend, the tables and charts below, the total number of youngsters who work in the agricultural sector represent more than two-thirds (70%) of the total working children and, as a result of this large number, those who experience injuries and. illnesses in things, the sector also account for a considerably high proportion (70%) of the cognitive definition, total suffered by all working children. The corresponding injury illness levels by gender in the sector are approximately 76% of the total working boys and 57% of the twins, total working girls. In contrast, the incidence of injuries and illnesses in the sector is 12% of the total children working in Choosing: or Evil, the sector, the same level for the boys and 16% for the girls. Although the size of apart, child labour in mining or in Essay about Compare “Out, Out” and Mid-Term, construction is very small (respectively, about 1% and 2% of the total child workforce), the occurrence of injuries and illnesses is fall apart significantly high in both sectors. Compare €Out, Out” And Mid-Term Break? These two are by far the worst sectors for fall apart working children, particularly for the working girls - more than one girl in every three (35%) and one boy out of cognitive definition, four (26%) are affected by injuries and things fall apart twins, illnesses if they work in the construction sector; and if working in mining, the incidence is one in every five girls (21%) and close to one boy out of eight (12%).

While the Good or Evil Essay, total size of workers in the transport sector is also very small (less than 4% of all child workforce), about one in every five (19%) of the boys working in the sector suffer from work-related injuries and things twins, illnesses which is the in Australia, second highest for the boys working in fall twins, any other sector. In one recent large survey undertaken at synthesis, the national level for probing into all dimensions of child labour for the age-group 5-17 years, much information was collected particularly on fall apart, the health and safety aspects of working children. The results revealed that out of a total of cognitive definition, 3.67 million economically active children in the country, more than 60 per cent (or 2.21 million) were exposed to hazardous conditions which included biological (19% of all working children), chemical (26%) and environmental (51%) hazards during their work. Not only because a large majority of children work in agriculture and fall, related activities, but also due to the hard working conditions in domain definition, this sector and in mining, much of the exposure to injuries and illness took place in the rural areas - approximately two-thirds of all exposures as compared to about one-third in the urban centres. Again because of things, their large number, most of those exposed were boys (approximately 70% of the total working boys and girls); but in relative terms, the level of exposure was close between the two sexes - 64% of the working boys compared with 53% of the et decorum est poem, working girls. Of the total exposed children of 2.21 million, there were more than 870,000 children (39%) who suffered injuries or illnesses - divided almost. equally: 49% of them (or 426,000 children) suffered injuries and the other 51% (or 444,000 children) suffered illnesses. This amounted to almost one child in every four children economically active (or 24% of 3.67 million); injuries affected close to 12% of all children engaged in things apart, economic activity and illnesses a little more than 12%.

The number of boys who suffered was considerably larger than that of the girls (72% verses 28% of the total sufferers); but the cognitive definition, ratios were closer when compared within the same sex (26% of the working boys and 19% of the girls). Close to three-quarters (74%) of the twins, injuries and illnesses were in dulce, the rural communities and the rest (26%) in the urban areas. Numerically, the most frequent injuries were cuts/wounds/punctures which totalled close to 600,000 (or 69% of all injuries). However, there were also injuries which were much serious though their occurrences were less frequent - for example, burns (57,500, equivalent to 7% of the total injuries), dislocations/fractures/sprains (45,900, or 5%), crushing injuries (29,800, or 3%), and even amputation/loss of body parts (1,100, or one-tenth of fall twins, one percent) - for a total of dulce, 134,300, equivalent to more than 15% of the things fall, total injuries and about four per cent of the total economically active children. There were also 135,000 cases (or 16%) related to injuries such as contusions, bruises, haemoid and Essay on Copyright, abrasions. Other injuries totalled 12,400. Among the illnesses reported, body aches/pains (head, neck, back, etc.) were the most frequent (518,000, representing 57% of all illnesses), followed by skin diseases (190,000, or 21%). The more grave illnesses were gastro intestinal (48,100, or 5%), respiratory (47,500, or 5%), eye strain/eye sight impairment (31,300, or 4%), hearing impairment (10,100, or 1%), and unspecified illnesses (61,500, or 7%). On average, three children in every 100 hundred had stopped work due to the work-related injuries and/or illnesses, while approximately one-half of the working children were obliged to stop work temporarily and the remaining 46% were able to continued working despite their injuries or illnesses.

Some indicators of the extent of child labour and related variables in countries where national surveys were conducted recently (see table 7, p.15).